397 Nez Perce ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS The tribe has been a leading force in recovery of the endangered Idaho gray wolf. The program is headed by the tribe’s wildlife program and works to reestablish the gray wolf population in a 13,000,000 acre area in central Idaho. Operations of the program include monitoring the wolf population, providing public education, population management and control, and research. In 2000 the project received the Honoring Nations/Ford FoundationAward administered by the Harvard Project onAmerican Indian Economic Development at the John F. Kennedy School of Government. The tribe actively resists State of Idaho sponsored initiatives that permit ranchers and hunters to kill wolves for sport just to boost regional elk populations. Wolves were taken off the protected species lists in 2011, and since then the tribe has had to be vigilant to prevent such practices on reservation lands. The tribe is also involved in management of its surface and groundwater sources, resources to which the tribe’s rights have been reserved by treaties with the federal government. This includes wetland management, restoration, enhancement, and protection. In 2013 several tribal members protested the use of a tribal road for the transport of massive earth moving and oil extraction equipment en route to tar sands mining operations in Alberta, Canada. This protest was a tribally sanctioned event with over 200 tribal participants that resulted in several members of the tribal executive council being arrested during the week of protests. The route for shipment, along U.S. Highway 95 and U.S. 12, a designatedWild and Scenic River corridor, roughly corresponds to an early trail utilized by Nez Perce buffalo hunters and is the same trail used by the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition. The tribe cited their stance against further tar sands oil extraction, a practice long known to be highly detrimental to ecosystems throughout entire watersheds, as well as their concern for the river corridor vital to the fish habitat recovery initiatives they have in place as reasons for their collective action. Although ultimately unsuccessful in their attempt to prevent this particular shipment, the tribe has partnered with Idaho Rivers United, a statewide conservation nonprofit organization, in taking legal actions to prevent such future uses of the roads that cross the reservation. In 2014 the tribe joined with the Idaho Conservation League in an action against the U.S. Forest Service to stop a 3-year minerals exploration project in Payette and Boise National Forests, in Valley County, Idaho. cluding salmon, steelhead trout, lamprey, and sturgeon, to full productivity. The fisheries program has offices throughout the reservation, in Powell, Red River, Grangeville, Orofino, McCall, Sweetwater, Lapwai, and in Joseph, Oregon. This program manages licensing for sport fishing, conducts water sampling, and coordinates efforts with other tribal agencies and state and federal governments. Mining. The tribe is currently studying the feasibility of reopening the Mission Creek Quarry and developing a new mining and basalt plan to improve efficiency at the quarry. Early studies indicate high quality limestone and basalt deposits on the reservation. Services and Retail. The Nez Perce Express includes a full-service convenience store. Express II is a 5,400 square foot gas station/store that offers tobacco products, a full deli, groceries, gift selections, automotive supplies, housewares, and bakery items. INFRASTRUCTURE Highways and Roads. U.S. Highways 12 and 95 run through the reservation. Transportation. Commercial airlines serve LewistonAirport in Lewiston. Several truck lines service the area via Lewiston, including United Parcel Service, Pony Express, Federal Express, Quick Delivery, Broadway Package Service, and Viking. Camas Prairie, Union Pacific, and Burlington Northern railway services are available in Lewiston. Several freight barge companies operate out of the Port of Lewiston, including Lewiston Tidewater Barge Lines, Brix Maritime, and Gem Chip Trading Company. Nez Perce Municipal Airport serves Nez Perce and Lewis counties, a 2,000 paved airstrip, one mile from the reservation headquarters. The tribe has createdAppaloosa Express Transit, a small fleet of multi-passenger buses, for fixed route transportation to many destinations throughout the reservation, and on- demand services are available. Electricity is provided to the reservation by Washington Water Power and Clearwater Power. Fuel. Natural gas service is available through WashingtonWater Power. Water Supply. Groundwater wells provide water. Media. The tribe publishes a newspaper, Ta’c Tito’oqan, that is available both online at the Clearwater River Casino web site and in print. Telecommunications. The reservation is served by U.S. West Communications and Northwest Communications. Nez Perce Systems, a tribal entity, manages information technology and wireless internet services for the entire reservation. They also operate KIYE 88.7 FM radio station. COMMUNITY FACILITIESAND SERVICES The Nez Perce Tribe Teweepuu Community Center in Orofino and theWa-A’Yas Community Center in Kamiah provide recreation, sports, educational, and cultural activities for tribal members. The Teweepuu Center served as the host to the Governor’s Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Trail Committee meeting. The Wa-A’Yas Center sponsors an annual Turkey Shootout, a community-wide Christmas dinner, and ECHDP Powwow. The Pi Nee Waus Community Center in Lapwai serves as the host for the annual Halloween party and activities in the summer for the youth. In2003 the tribe established the NezPerceTribalChildren’s Trust Fund. The organization provides funding for the Nez Perce Tribal Children’s Home and Advocacy Center, child protection services, foster care placement, supportive services, and youth development programs. This fund also provides funding for internships and college scholarshipsandforspecific social serviceneeds.TheBoys andGirlsClubsoftheLewisClarkValleyproviderecreational andafter-schoolactivates for community youth. The program is located on the reservation in Lapwai at its Lapwai Club unit, which features a 10,300 square foot facility with gymnasium, technology center, arts and crafts area, and teen center. The tribe also has a Language and Arts Council building and many other tribally owned and operated facilities in Lapwai. Education. There are five public schools, a tribal Head Start program, and a tribal employment and training department on the reservation. The tribe provides financial assistance to students seeking postsecondary and vocational education and conducts instructional classes in the indigenous language and a cultural camp for children between the ages of 4 and 12 years. Health Care. Under the provisions of PL 93-638, in 1997 the tribe assumed operation of the Nimi’ipuu Health Center clinic in Lapwai and a satellite clinic in Kamiah. Both clinics are ambulatory facilities that offer medical, pharmacy, lab and x-ray, dental, behavioral health, and community health services. Offices for behavioral health and community health services are located at separate sites. Health care is also available at St. Joseph’s and Tri-State hospitals in Lewiston.