Tiller's Guide to Indian Country - First Edition

This reference guide profiles by state the economy of every Indian reservation in the United States. No such attempt has been made in this country for more than twenty years, and no such attempt until now has relied so heavily on information provided by the Tribes themselves. Wherever possible, this Guide has relied upon information provided by the Indian tribes regarding their land holdings; their culture and history; and their economic infrastructure and enterprises. This work began as an update of the seminal Federal and State Indian Reservations and Indian Trust Areas, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce in 1974. That work has remained, until now, the single most consulted and authoritative source of information on the Indian tribes of the contiguous 48 states, and the present work owes much to the format pioneered there. Indian tribes and Alaska Natives have added enormously to the land bases they claimed in 1974, however, and many tribes have since been added to those recognized by the various states or by the United States in 1974. In an effort to be inclusive, this guide also includes some tribes that do have tribal governments and are recognized by either the state in which they reside or by the United States, but who have not (as of the autumn of 1995) established a tribal land base. The format used here lists on the first line of each profile the name of the reservation (where one exists). The second line provides the generally utilized name of the tribal group(s) occupying the reservation. The third line identifies the county or counties in which the reservations are located. The next two lines provide telephone numbers for voice communication and dedicated lines for facsimile transmission or reception. As of this printing, many telephone numbers, including Area Codes, are changing with increasing frequency throughout the country as the electronic communications industry continues to cope with dramatic changes in that industry. The user is cautioned to verify these numbers periodically. The next set of data displayed pertains to the extent of Indian land holdings on the reservation, and demographic information regarding the tribe(s) on the reservation. The information regarding land holdings was taken from either the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs statistics, or from the tribes themselves. The demographic data were taken mostly from the 1990 Decennial Report of the United States Bureau of the Census or from Labor Force Reports of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, except where a Tribe offered more current or more accurate information. LOCATION AND LAND STATUS The section on Location and Land Status situates each reservation geographically within the State. This section also describes such anomalies as non-contiguous reservation tracts and recently acquired lands, which may or may not (in 1995) have acquired reservation statis. If all the land tenures described do not add up to the total reservation area, it is not necessarily a mistake. Tribes throughout the length and breadth of the country are disputing their jurisdictional areas, their off-reservation treaty-protected areas, and even ownership of large tracts of land. For instance, surveying errors of the 19th Century are still being corrected by the Congress and the courts of the United States in the late 20th Century. Thus, the brief history of the reservation lands in this section intimates no opinion regarding the ultimate resolution of such disputes, but describes the generally accepted view of the extent of Indian land holdings associated with each reservation. For states such as Alaska and California with peculiarly complex histories, supplemental information is provided as an aid to the user. CULTURE AND HISTORY Great efforts were made to enable Tribes to provide their own information regarding these aspects of their Tribal profiles. This section includes information on broad ethnohistories, historic linguistic groupings, and historic geographic ranges of the Tribe(s) occupying the present reservation. Here, too, special sections on Alaska and California have been included to avoid repetition of large numbers of similar post-Colombian experiences. GOVERNMENT This section describes briefly the method by which the Tribe(s) of each reservation presently govern themselves, their territory, and others within their jurisdiction. Many Tribes provided far more detailed information than could be accommodated in a brief profile, and for other Tribes most of the information was provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ECONOMY The economy of each reservation is described briefly, including information regarding agricultural, forestry, livestock, mineral and minina industrial, manufacturing, and recreational activity. Several sources were utilized to compile this information, including a questionnaire sent to all Tribes by Tiller Research, Inc., of Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition, tribes throughout the country were visited by researchers of Tiller Research, and these visits proved the most productive of all sources of information regarding economic activity on reservations. In addition, many Tribes provided detailed information by mail, phone, and facsimile transmission. Many Tribes who did not respond directly, nevertheless, provided invaluable information through “Overall Economic Development Plans (OEDP’S) which they had previously supplied to the Economic Development Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce, and these sections throughout the work owe much to those documents provided by the Commerce Department. A list of major sources is found in the Bibliography. INFRASTRUCTURE AND COMMUNITY FACILITIES These sections describe transportation, utility, and delivery services available to each reservation. Community facilities, including governmental facilities, public meeting facilities, health care delivery emergency industrial, recreational, and housing facilities are included. MAPS State maps were included to provide the general locations of the Indian reservations and communities. Major cities, counties, interstate highways, U.S. highways and state highways were also included. ... X111