Tiller's Guide to Indian Country - First Edition

h “’ \Nev* I !“’ , I ; Mb .,. I mom. I > Kansas I m ‘mA-’ ..-—-—— .—_____ .,, ,r- . .. ..... I -.,’- ,. .................... . . . 01996 by Veronica E. Velarde Tiller All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America @Photographs by E. M. Tiller ~klahoma photographs by Veronica E. Tiller @Navajo Agricultural Products Irrigation photo by Dennis Wall Alaska Photos courtesy of Alaska Department of Tourism and Ernst Schneider This publication was prepared by Tiller Research Incorporated. The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the compiler and editor and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Economic Development Administration. For comments and questions call (800) 895-8668

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Sitka ............................................................................................ 166 Sleetmute ................................................................................... 167 Solomon ..................................................................................... 168 South Naknek ........................................................................... 168 Stebbins ...................................................................................... 169 Stevens Village .......................................................................... 170 Stony River ................................................................................ 171 Takotia ....................................................................................... 172 Tanacross ................................................................................... 172 Tanana ........................................................................................ 173 Tatitlek ........................................................................................ 174 Tazlina ........................................................................................ 174 Telida .......................................................................................... 175 Teller ........................................................................................... 176 Tetlin ........................................................................................... 177 Togiak ................... ............ ........................................................ 177 Toksook Bay .............................................................................. 178 Tulukak ..................................................................................... 179 Tuntutuliak ................................................................................ 180 Tununak ..................................................................................... 181 Twin Hills .................................................................................. 182 Tyonek ........................................................................................ 183 Ugashik ...................................................................................... 184 Umkumiute ............................................................................... 184 Unalakleet .................................................................................. 185 Unalaska .................................................................................... 186 Unga .......................................................................................... 187 Upper Kalskag .......................................................................... 188 Venetie ........................................................................................ 189 Wainwright ................................................................................ 189 Wales .......................................................................................... 190 White Mountain ....................................................................... 191 Yakutat ....................................................................................... 192 ARIZONA Ak-Chin (Maricopa) Resemation .......................................... 195 Camp Verde Yavapai-Apache Reservation ......................... 197 Cocopah Indian Reservation ................................................. 198 Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation .......................... 200 Fort Apache Reservation ........................................................ 201 Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Reservation .................... 204 Fort Mohave Reservation .................................. .................... 205 Fort Yuma Reservation .............................. ............................ 206 Gila River Reservation ............................................................ 207 Havasupai Resewation ........................................................... 208 Hopi Reservation ..................................................................... 21o Hualapai Reservation ..............................................................2ll Kaibab-Paiute Rewrvation ..................................................... 212 Navajo Nation ........................................................................... 214 Pascua Yaqui Reservation ....................................................... 218 Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community ...................219 San Carlos Apache Resemation ............................................. 221 San Juan Southern Paiute Council ........................................ 222 Tohono Oodham Reservation (formerly Papago Reservation) ....................................................... 223 Tonto Apache Reservation ...................................................... 225 Yavapai-Prescott Reservation ................................................ 226 CALIFORNIA The Precontact Period ............................................................. 227 The Spanish/Mexican Period ................................................ 227 The American Period ............................................................... 229 The Cultures .............................................................................. 229 Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians ............................. 234 Alturas Rancheria .................................................................... 235 Barona Indian Reservation ..................................................... 235 Benton Paiute Reservation ..................................................... 236 Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians ............................ 237 Big Bend Rancheria .................................................................. 238 ... Vlll

Big Lagoon ................................................................................ 239 Big Pine Resewation ................................................................ 239 Big Sandy Rancheria ................................................................ 240 Big Valley ................................................................................... 241 Bishop Reservation ..............................................................~241 Blue Lake Rancheria ................................................................ 242 Bridgeport Indian Colony ...................................................... 243 Buena Vista Rancheria ............................................................. 244 Cabazon Resewation ............................................................... 244 Cahuilla Reservation ............................................................... 246 Campo Reservation ............... ................. ............................... 247 Capitan Grande Reservation .................................................. 248 Cedarville Rancheria ............. ................................................. 248 Chemehuevi Indian Reservation ........................................... 248 Cold Springs Rancheria .......................................................... 249 Colusa Rancheria ..................................................................... 251 Cortina Indian Rancheria .... ........ ........ .............................. . 252 Coyote Valley Reservation .................... ................. .............. 253 Cuyapaipe Reservation ......................... ..... .................... ..... 254 Dry Creek Rancheria ............................................................... 254 Elk Valley Rancheria ................................................................ 254 Fort Bidwell Reservation .......... ........... ... ............................. 255 Fort Independence Reservation ............................................. 256 Fort Mojave Reservation ......................................................... 256 Fort Yuma Reservation ............................................................ 256 Greenville Rancheria of Maidu Indians . ............................. 257 Grindstone Indian Rancheria ................................................. 257 Hoopa Valley Reservation ...................................................... 258 Hopland Reservation .............................................................. 260 Jackson Rancheria .................................................................... 261 Jamul Indian Village ................................................................ 262 Karuk Tribe of California ........................................................ 263 La Jolla Reservation ................................................................. 264 La Posta Reservation ............................................................... 265 Laytonville Rancheria ............................................................. 266 Likely Rancheria ....................................................................... 267 Lone Pine Reservation ............................................................ 267 Lookout Rancheria ................................................................... 268 Los Coyotes Reservation ........................................................ 269 Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria .... ................................ 270 Manzanita Reservation ........................................................... 271 Mesa Grande ............................................................................. 271 Middletown Rancheria ........................................................... 272 Montgomery Creek Rancheria ............................................... 272 Morongo Reservation .............................................................. 274 North Fork Rancheria .............................................................. 275 Pala Reservation ....................................................................... 276 Paskenpa Band of Nomelecki Indians .. .............. ............ . 277 Pauma and Yuima Reservation ...... ..... ................. ..... ........ 277 Pechanga Reservation ............................................................. 278 Pinoleville Rancheria ............................................................... 278 Potter Valley Rancheria ........................................................... 279 Quartz Valley Indian Community ....... ..................... .......... 280 Ramona Reservation ................................................................ 281 Redding Rancheria .................................................................. 281 Redwood Valley Rancheria .................................................... 282 Resighini Rancheria ................................................................. 283 Rincon Reservation .................................................................. 284 Roaring Creek Rancheria ........................................................ 285 Robinson Rancheria ................................................................. 286 Rohnerville Rancheria ............................................................. 287 Round Valley Reservation ...................................................... 287 Rumsey Rancheria ................................................................... 288 San Manuel Reservation ......................................................... 289 San Pasqual Reservation ......................................................... 29o Santa Rosa Rancheria .............................................................. 291 Santa Rosa Reservation ........................................................... 292 Santa Ynez Reservation ........................................................... 293 Santa Ysabel Reservation ........................................................ 294 Scotts Valley Band of Porno Indians of the Sugar Bowl Rancheria .................................................... 295 Sheep Ranch Rancheria ........................................................... 295 Sherwood Valley Rancheria ................................................... 295 Shingle Springs Rancheria ...................................................... 296 Soboba Reservation ................................................................. 297 Sulphur Bank Rancheria/ Elem Indian Colony ..................298 Susanville Rancheria ............................................................... 299 Sycuan Rancheria ..................................................................... 300 Table Mountain ......................................................................... 301 Timbi-Sha Band of Shoshone Indians ................................... 301 Torres Martinez Reservation .................................................. 302 Trinidad Rancheria .................................................................. 302 Tule River Reservation ............................................................ 304 Tuolumne Rancheria ................................................................ 305 Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation ........................................... 306 Upper Lake Rancheria ............................................................ 306 United Auburn Community .................................................. 307 Viejas Reservation ...................... ............................................. 307 X-L Ranch Reservation ............................................................ 308 Yurok Reservation .................................................................... 309 COLORADO Southern Ute Reservation .......................................................3ll Ute Mountain Ute Reservation ............................................. 313 CONNECTICUT Eastern Paucatuck Pequot . . . . . . . . . . 317 Golden Hill Reservation ......... ............................................... 317 Mashantucket Pequot Reservation ....................................... 319 Mohegan Indian Reservation ................................................. 320 Schaghticoke Reservation ....................................................... 320 DELAWARE Nanticoke Tribe of Delaware ................................................. 321 FLORIDA Big Cypress Reservation . . . . . . . . . 323 Brighton Reservation ............................................................... 324 Florida State Reservation ........................................................ 324 Hollywood Reservation . . . . . . 325 Immokalee Reservation . . . . . . . . . 326 Miccosukee Reservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Tampa Reservation . . . . . . . . . . 327 GEORGIA Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees ..................................... 329 Tama Tribal Town ..................................................................... 329 IDAHO Introduction .............................................................................. 331 Coeur DAlene Reservation ................................................... 332 Fort Hall Reservation .............................................................. 335 Kootenai Reservation . . . . . . 336 Nez Perce Reservation .................... ........... ........................... 338 IOWA Sac and Fox Reservation ......................................................... 341 KANSAS Iowa Reservation ...................................................................... 343 Kickapoo Reservation ............................................................. 344 Prairie Band Potawatomi Reservation . . . 345 Sac and Fox Reservation ......................................................... 346 LOUISIANA Coushatta Reservation . . . . . . . . 349 Chitimacha Reservation .......................................................... 349 Tunica.Biloxi Reservation ....................................................... 351 MAINE Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians . . . . . 353 Houlton Maliseet Reservation .... .......................................... 355 Penobscot Reservation ............................................................ 355 Pleasant Point and Indian Township Reservations ...........357 ix

MASSACHUSETTES Gay Head Reservation ............................................................ 361 Hassanamisco Reservation ..................................................... 363 Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe ................................................... 363 MICHIGAN Bay Mills Chippewa Reservation .......................................... 365 Grand Traverse Reservation ................................................... 366 Harmahville Reservation ........................................................ 368 Huron Potawatomi Reservation ............................................ 369 Isabella Reservation ................................................................. 370 Lac Vieux Desert Reservation ................................................ 372 UAnse Reservation (Keweenaw Bay) .................................. 373 Little Traverse Bay Bands Reservation ................................. 374 Ontonagon Reservation (See L’Anse Reservation) ............374 Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians ................................. 374 Sault Ste. Marie Reservation .................................................. 375 MINNESOTA Bois Forte Reservation ............................................................ 377 Fond du Lac Reservation ........................................................ 380 Grand Portage Reservation .................................................... 381 Leech Lake Reservation .......................................................... 382 Lower Sioux Reservation ........................................................ 384 Mine Lacs Reservation ............................................................ 385 Prairie Island Community ...................................................... 388 Red Lake Band Reservation ................................................... 389 Shakopee Reservation (Prior Lake) ...................................... 390 Upper Sioux Reservation ........................................................ 391 White Earth Reservation ......................................................... 393 MISSISSIPPI Choctaw Reservation ............................................................... 395 MONTANA Blackfeet Reservation .............................................................. 397 Crow Reservation ..................................................................... 400 Flathead Reservation ............................................................... 401 Fort Belknap Reservation ....................................................... 402 Fort Peck Reservation .............................................................. 404 Northern Cheyenne Reservation ........................................... 405 Rocky Boy’s Reservation ........................................................ 407 NEBRASKA Ponca Tribe of Nebraska ......................................................... 409 Santee Sioux Reservation ........................................................ 410 Winnebago Nebraska Reservation .........................................4ll NEVADA Battle Mountain Reservation ................................................. 413 Carson Colony .......................................................................... 414 Dresslerville Colony ................................................................ 415 Duck Valley Reservation ......................................................... 415 Duckwater Reservation ........................................................... 416 Elko Colony ............................................................................... 417 Ely Indian Colony .................................................................... 418 Fallen Colony and Reservation ............................................. 419 Fort McDermitt Reservation .................................................. 420 Goshute Paiute Tribe of Utah and Nevada ......................... 421 Las Vegas Colony & Reservation .......................................... 421 Lovelock Colony ...................................................................... 422 Moapa River Reservation ....................................................... 422 Pyramid Lake Reservation ..................................................... 423 Reno-Sparks Colony ................................................................ 424 South Fork Resemation ........................................................... 425 Stewart Colony ......................................................................... 426 Summit Lake Reservation ...................................................... 426 Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone .................................... 427 Walker River Reservation ....................................................... 427 Washoe Reservation ................................................................. 428 Wells Colony ............................................................................. 429 Winnemucca Colony ............................................................... 430 Woodfords Colony ................................................................... 431 Yomba Colony .......................................................................... 431 Yerington Colony and Reservation ............... ....................... 431 NEW JERSEY Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians of New Jersey, Inc. .......433 Ramapough Mountain Indians ............................................. 433 Rancocas Indian Reservation ................................................. 433 NEW MEXICO Acoma Pueblo ........................................................................... 435 Alamo Reservation .................................................................. 438 Canoncito Reservation ............................................................ 438 Cochiti Pueblo .......................................................................... 439 Islets Pueblo .............................................................................. 440 Jemez Pueblo ............................................................................. 442 Jicarilla Apache Reservation .................................................. 443 Laguna Pueblo .......................................................................... 446 Mescalero Apache Reservation .............................................. 448 Nambe Pueblo .......................................................................... 450 Picuris Pueblo ........................................................................... 451 Pojoaque Pueblo ....................................................................... 453 Ramah Resemation .................................................................. 454 San Felipe Pueblo ..................................................................... 455 San Ildefonso Pueblo ............................................................... 456 San Juan Pueblo ........................................................................ 457 Sandia Pueblo ........................................................................... 459 Santa Ana Pueblo ..................................................................... 460 Santa Clara Pueblo ................................................................... 462 Santo Domingo Pueblo ........................................................... 464 Taos Pueblo ............................................................................... 465 Tesuque Pueblo ......................................................................... 466 Zia Pueblo .................................................................................. 468 Zuni Pueblo ............................................................................... 470 NEW YORK Allegany Reservation .............................................................. 473 Cattaraugus Reservation ........................................................ 475 Oil Springs Reservation .......................................................... 477 Oneida Reservation ................................................................. 477 Onondaga Reservation ........................................................... 478 Poospatuck Reservation ......................................................... 478 St. Regis Mohawk Reservation .............................................. 478 Shimecock Reservation .......................................................... 480 Tonawanda Reservation ......................................................... 481 Tuscarora Nation ...................................................................... 481 NORTH CAROLINA Eastern Cherokee Reservation ............................................... 483 Coharie Intra-Tribal Council .................................................. 485 Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe ................................................... 485 Lumbee Tribe ............................................................................ 486 Meherrin Indian Reservation ................................................. 486 Waccamauw Siouan Tribe ....................................................... 488 NORTH DAKOTA Devils Lake Sioux Reservation .............................................. 489 Fort Berthold Reservation ...................................................... 491 Lake Traverse Reservation ..................................................... 492 Turtle Mountain Reservation and Trenton Indian Service Area ......................................................... 494 OKLAHOMA Absentee Shawnee Tribe ......................................................... 497 Alabama Quassarte Tribal Town ........................................... 499 Apache Tribe of OklAoma ..................................................... 500 Caddo Tribe ............................................................................... 501 Cherokee Nation ...................................................................... 502 Cheyeme-Arapaho Reservation ........................................... 505 Chickasaw Nation .................................................................... 507 Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma ............................................... 509 Citizen Band Potawatomi ....................................................... 510 Comanche Tribe of Oklahoma ................................................5ll Creek (Muskogee) Nation ...................................................... 512 Delaware Reservation ............................................................. 514 x

Eastern Shawnee Reservation ................................................ 515 Fort Sill Apache Tribe .. ........................... ........................... ... 517 Iowa Reservation ...................................................................... 518 Kaw Tribe of Oklahoma .......................... ............................... 519 Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma .............. .. .............................. 520 Miami Tribe of Oklahoma ...................... ............................... 521 Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma ...................................................... 522 Osage Reservation ....... .................... ...................................... 522 Otoe-Missouria Reservation . . . . . 524 Ottawa Tribe .............................................................................. 525 Pawnee Tribe ................. ........................... ............................... 526 Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma .... ........... ...... ............................... 527 Ponca Reservation .................................................................... 528 Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma ................................................... 529 Sac and Fox Reservation ......................................................... 530 Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma .................................................. 531 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma ....................................... 533 Thlopthlocco Tribal Town ....................................................... 534 Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma . . . . . . . . 535 United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee ............ ........... ...... .. 535 Wichita Tribe .......................................... .. ........ .. .............. ... 536 Wyandotte Reservation ........................................................... 537 OREGON Burns Paiute Reservation . . . . 539 Celilo Village . . . . . . . . . 540 Confederated Tribe of Coos, Lower Umpqua, & Siuslaw Indians .................................... ....... .............. 540 Coquille Indian Tribal Community .. ................................... 541 Cow Creek ............. ................................................................... 542 Grand Ronde Reservation .............. ....................................... 542 Klamath Reservation ........ ........... .. ....................................... 544 Siletz Reservation ..................................................................... 545 Umatilla Reservation ............................................................... 546 Warm Springs Reservation ..................................................... 548 RHODE ISLAND Narragansett Reservation ............................................... ...... 551 SOUTH CAROLINA Catawba Reservation ............................................................... 553 SOUTH DAKOTA Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation ...................................... 555 Crow Creek Sioux Reservation .............................................. 557 Flandreau Santee Sioux Reservation .................................... 557 Lower Brule Reservation ........... ........................................... 558 Pine Ridge Reservation ........................................................... 560 Rosebud Reservation ............................................................... 561 Standing Rock Reservation .................................................... 562 Yankton Reservation ................................................................ 563 TEXAS Alabama-Coushatta Reservation . ........................................ 565 Kickapoo Reservation ............................................................. 566 Tigua Reservation ............ ........... ............ .. ........ .. ............... 567 UTAH Goshute Reservation ............... ............... ........ ...................... 569 Paiute Reservation (Shivwits, Cedar City and Kanosh Reservations) ..................... .. .................. 570 Skull Valley Reservation .................. .. ... ........ ...................... 571 Uintah and Ouray Reservation .............................................. 572 VIRGINIA Chickahominy Indian Tribe .................. ... ........ ................... 575 Eastern Chickahominy Tribe .............. ............... .............. ... 576 Monacan Indian Tribe ............................................................. 576 Nansemond Indian Tribe ........................................................ 576 Pamunkey Indian Tribe ........................................................... 576 United Rappahannock Tribe ................................. ................ 576 Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe .............................................. 576 WASHINGTON Chehalis Reservation ............................................................... 577 Colville Reservation ................................................................ 579 Hoh Reservation ....................................................................... 581 Jamestown Reservation ........................................................... 582 Kalispel Reservation ................................................................ 583 Lower Elwha Reservation ...................................................... 584 Lummi Reservation ................................................................. 585 Makah Reservation .................................................................. 587 Muckleshoot Indian Reservation .......................................... 589 Nisqually Reservation ............................................................. 590 Nooksack Resemation ............................................................. 591 Port Gamble Resemation ........................................................ 592 Port Madison Reservation ...................................................... 593 Puyallup Reservation .............................................................. 595 Quileute Indian Reservation .................................................. 595 Quinault Reservation .............................................................. 596 Sauk-Suiattle Reservation ....................................................... 598 Shoalwater Reservation .......................................................... 598 Skokomish Reservation ........................................................... 598 Spokane Reservation ............................................................... 600 Squaxin Island Reservation .................................................... 602 Stillaquamish Reservation ...................................................... 603 Swinomish Reservation .......................................................... 603 Tulalip Reservation .................................................................. 605 Upper Skagit Tribe ................................................................... 606 Yakama Reservation ................................................................ 607 WISCONSIN Bad River Reservation ............................................................ 609 Forest County Potawatomi Reservation ............. ................. 611 Ho-Chunk Reservation (formerly Winnebago) ..................612 Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Reservation .............................. 614 Lac Du Flambeau Reservation ............................................... 615 Menominee Reservation ......................................................... 617 Mole Lake Reservation ............................................................ 619 Oneida Reservation ................................................................. 620 Red Cliff Reservation .............................................................. 622 St. Croix Chippewa Reservation ........................................... 623 Stockbridge-Munsee Reservation ....... ................................. 624 WYOMING Wind River Reservation ..................... .................................... 627 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......... ................ .................................................... 631 INDEX ................................................................................................. 645 xi

United States ................................. ii Alabama .......................................... 1 Alaska .............................................. 4 Arizona ....................................... 196 Navajo Nation ............................ 215 California .................................... 228 Colorado ..................................... 311 Connecticut ................................ 317 Florida ......................................... 323 Idaho ............................................33l Iowa ............................................. 341 Kansas ......................................... 343 Louisiana .................................... 350 Maine ...........................................353 Massachusetts ........... ............... 361 Michigan ..................................... 365 Minnesota ................................... 378 Montana ...................................... 398 Nebraska .....................................4O9 Nevada ........................................ 414 New Mexico ............................... 436 New York .................................... 473 North Carolina ........................... 483 North Dakota ............................. 489 Oklahoma ................................... 498 Oregon .........................................539 Rhode Island .............................. 551 South Carolina ........................... 553 South Dakota ............................. 555 Texas ............................................ 566 Utah ............................................. 57o Virginia ........................................575 Washington ................................ 578 Wisconsin .................................... 610 Wyoming .................................... 628 Ice Fishing ............................................................................................ 10 Angoon, Alaska ................................................................................... 20 Barrow - Far North, Alaska ............................................................... 28 Athabascan Woman at Fish Camp ................................................... 52 Tlinglit Ceremonial Boat .................................................................... 70 Kotzebue, AK ....................................................................................... 86 Kotzebue, AK ....................................................................................... 86 Blanket Toss .......................................................................................... 87 Chilkat Dancers ................................................................................... 91 Boat Harbor, Kodiak, AK ................................................................. 102 Mountain Pass .................................................................................... 112 Ninilchik, Kenai Peninsula .............................................................. 125 Eskimo Woman with Baskets .......................................................... 130 Fort Apache Timber Company Sign .............................................. 203 The NAPI’s Water System Irrigation ............................................. 214 Land at Colchester ............................................................................ 318 Harvesting Wheat at Coeur DAlene ............................................. 333 Clearwater River ............................................................................... 339 Tribally Owned Gift Shop ............................................................... 354 Audio Tape Manufacturing Plant, Olamon Industries ..............356 Tribal Building at Indian Township ............................................... 358 Wampanoag Environmentally-friendly Tribal Building ............362 Tourists at Martha’s Vineyard Visit Gay Head ............................ 362 Cap Cod Beauty ................................................................................ 364 On the 55 Acres, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Building .....364 Grand Traverse Band Motel ............................................................ 367 New Public Safety Center Still Under Construction ..................371 Grand Hinkley Inn, Owned and Operated by the Mine Lacs Band ................................................................. 386 Summer Concert at the Grand Amphitheater in Hinkley .........386 Built By the Tribe for the Tribe, a Magnificent Gathering Place ........................................................................ 387 Plains Inspired Architecture ........................................................... 390 One of Several Schools on One Street ........................................... 397 Located on the South Shore of Flathead Lake, the Resort is Owned by the Tribe ............................................................ 401 S & K Electronics ............................................................................... 402 Spectacular Vista from the Kwa Taq Nuk Resort ....................... 402 The Marina at Cochiti Lake ............................................................. 440 The Convenience Store at Jemez Pueblo ....................................... 442 Oil Field on the Southern Jicarilla Apache Reservation ................................................................................ M5 Jicarilla Apache Elder at Annual Ceremony ................................ 446 Mescalero Forest Products Mill at Mescalero .............................. 449 Restaurant at Picuris Pueblo ........................................................... 452 Santa Ana Golf Course ..................................................................... 461 Summer Corn at Zia Pueblo ............................................................ 469 Oneida Cultural Center, Built with Pride and by Hand ............477 Many Tribal Members Own a Business. (Above) Restaurant, Gas Station, and Gift Shop inOne ..................479 Community Building for the Tonawanda Band .......................... 481 One of Many Businesses .................................................................. 484 One Example of the Well-developed Infrastmcture on the Reservation ..................................................... ............. 484 Haliwa-Saponi Farm ........................................................................ 486 Meherrin Tribal Headquarters in Wanton ..................................... 487 Cherokee Nation Industries at Stilwell, Oklahoma .................... 503 The Wilma Mankiller Health Center at Stilwell. Opened in Summer 1995 ........................................................ 504 The new Starr Bingo Hall at Concho, Oklahoma. Owned and Operated by the Cheyeme Arapahoe Tribe. ...............506 Chickasaw Community Center at Okmulgee .............................. 508 Creek Nation Bingo Hall at Okmulgee off U. S. Hiway 123 .................................................................. 513 Muskogee Creek Manufacturing Company Okmulgee ............513 Delaware Tribal Headquarters near Anadarko ........................... 515 Vision Clinic Operated by the Eastern Shawnee Tribe ............... 516 Kansa Greenhouses Owned by the Kaw Tribe ............................ 519 Oil Fields in Osage County ............................................................. 523 Sac and Fox Community Library and Archives .......................... 530 Trading Post Operated by Seminole Tribe .................................... 532 Multi-purpose Community Building Newly Built in Summer, 1995 by Seminole Tribe .......................................... 532 The Lighthouse Restaurant Located in Grove, OK is Owned by Seneca-Cayuga Tribe ........................................... 533 Privately Owned Petroleum Company and Convenience Store on Wyandotte Reservation ..................538 Kah Nee Ta Mineral Swimming Pool at Warm Springs .............549 Traditional Gathering Place-Two Tribal Elders Under Pine Shade .................................................................... 552 Badlands ............................................................................................. 559 Jingle Dancer and Little Friend ...................................................... 564 Hoh Indian Tribal Building ............................................................. 581 Art Adorned Tribal Building at Lower Elwha ............................. 584 Makah Senior Citizens Center Facing Juan de Fuca ...................587 Forest and Mountains Nestled Between the Pacific and Juan de Fuca West of Neah Bay ........................ 588 One of the Muckleshoot Fisheries .................................................. 589 Quileute Harbor at La Push ............................................................ 596 The 150-slip Marina at Two Rivers ................................................ 601 Main Entrance at Yakama Hospital ............................................... 607 Assembling Sofas at the Yakama Furniture Plant at the Wapato Industrial Park ................................................ 608 Construction of Hotel Adjacent to Casino .................................... 614 View of Lac du Flambeau from the New Hotel and Casino .....615 Tribal Electronics Firm ..................................................................... 615 Begun in 1871 —Menominee Commercial Logging Enterprise .................................................................. 618 Neighborhood at Menominee ......................................................... 618 Culture Reflected in Architecture, Oneida Built School ............621 Oneida Day Care Center .................................................................. 621 One of Two Motels Built by the Tribe ............................................ 624 Stockbridge Munsee Community Center ..................................... 625 The Cowboy Spirit ............................................................................ 627 xii

This reference guide profiles by state the economy of every Indian reservation in the United States. No such attempt has been made in this country for more than twenty years, and no such attempt until now has relied so heavily on information provided by the Tribes themselves. Wherever possible, this Guide has relied upon information provided by the Indian tribes regarding their land holdings; their culture and history; and their economic infrastructure and enterprises. This work began as an update of the seminal Federal and State Indian Reservations and Indian Trust Areas, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce in 1974. That work has remained, until now, the single most consulted and authoritative source of information on the Indian tribes of the contiguous 48 states, and the present work owes much to the format pioneered there. Indian tribes and Alaska Natives have added enormously to the land bases they claimed in 1974, however, and many tribes have since been added to those recognized by the various states or by the United States in 1974. In an effort to be inclusive, this guide also includes some tribes that do have tribal governments and are recognized by either the state in which they reside or by the United States, but who have not (as of the autumn of 1995) established a tribal land base. The format used here lists on the first line of each profile the name of the reservation (where one exists). The second line provides the generally utilized name of the tribal group(s) occupying the reservation. The third line identifies the county or counties in which the reservations are located. The next two lines provide telephone numbers for voice communication and dedicated lines for facsimile transmission or reception. As of this printing, many telephone numbers, including Area Codes, are changing with increasing frequency throughout the country as the electronic communications industry continues to cope with dramatic changes in that industry. The user is cautioned to verify these numbers periodically. The next set of data displayed pertains to the extent of Indian land holdings on the reservation, and demographic information regarding the tribe(s) on the reservation. The information regarding land holdings was taken from either the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs statistics, or from the tribes themselves. The demographic data were taken mostly from the 1990 Decennial Report of the United States Bureau of the Census or from Labor Force Reports of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, except where a Tribe offered more current or more accurate information. LOCATION AND LAND STATUS The section on Location and Land Status situates each reservation geographically within the State. This section also describes such anomalies as non-contiguous reservation tracts and recently acquired lands, which may or may not (in 1995) have acquired reservation statis. If all the land tenures described do not add up to the total reservation area, it is not necessarily a mistake. Tribes throughout the length and breadth of the country are disputing their jurisdictional areas, their off-reservation treaty-protected areas, and even ownership of large tracts of land. For instance, surveying errors of the 19th Century are still being corrected by the Congress and the courts of the United States in the late 20th Century. Thus, the brief history of the reservation lands in this section intimates no opinion regarding the ultimate resolution of such disputes, but describes the generally accepted view of the extent of Indian land holdings associated with each reservation. For states such as Alaska and California with peculiarly complex histories, supplemental information is provided as an aid to the user. CULTURE AND HISTORY Great efforts were made to enable Tribes to provide their own information regarding these aspects of their Tribal profiles. This section includes information on broad ethnohistories, historic linguistic groupings, and historic geographic ranges of the Tribe(s) occupying the present reservation. Here, too, special sections on Alaska and California have been included to avoid repetition of large numbers of similar post-Colombian experiences. GOVERNMENT This section describes briefly the method by which the Tribe(s) of each reservation presently govern themselves, their territory, and others within their jurisdiction. Many Tribes provided far more detailed information than could be accommodated in a brief profile, and for other Tribes most of the information was provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ECONOMY The economy of each reservation is described briefly, including information regarding agricultural, forestry, livestock, mineral and minina industrial, manufacturing, and recreational activity. Several sources were utilized to compile this information, including a questionnaire sent to all Tribes by Tiller Research, Inc., of Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition, tribes throughout the country were visited by researchers of Tiller Research, and these visits proved the most productive of all sources of information regarding economic activity on reservations. In addition, many Tribes provided detailed information by mail, phone, and facsimile transmission. Many Tribes who did not respond directly, nevertheless, provided invaluable information through “Overall Economic Development Plans (OEDP’S) which they had previously supplied to the Economic Development Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce, and these sections throughout the work owe much to those documents provided by the Commerce Department. A list of major sources is found in the Bibliography. INFRASTRUCTURE AND COMMUNITY FACILITIES These sections describe transportation, utility, and delivery services available to each reservation. Community facilities, including governmental facilities, public meeting facilities, health care delivery emergency industrial, recreational, and housing facilities are included. MAPS State maps were included to provide the general locations of the Indian reservations and communities. Major cities, counties, interstate highways, U.S. highways and state highways were also included. ... X111

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