Tiller's Guide to Indian Country - Second Edition

EDITOR’S FORWORD VI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In 1996, Tiller Research Inc.(TRI) was proud to produce Tiller's Guide to Indian Country (TGIC). The first of its type, our reference guide brought current, pertinent information about state and federally recognized Indian reservations to the bookshelves. It offered readers up-to-date and first-hand information about tribal nations, and gave Indian people a voice in the telling of their own histories. TGIC brought to the field a comprehensive guide to the economic status of reservations in this nation, providing data collected directly from tribes as well as from available resources. In gathering information for the 1996 edition, I realized that historical and anthropological information about tribal nations in the United States abounded, as did sterile statistical data. There was nothing, however, that presented tribes as living cultures, as vibrant economies, and as enduring communities that have persisted and sometimes prospered and flourished right alongside mainstreamAmerican society. The significance of our work became clear. With TGIC, we were not only compiling a thorough and accurate reference work, but we were adding life to the sterile statistics compiled by government. We were presenting an alternative image to the American stereotype of Indian reservations. We were showing how often tribes actually underpin local and regional economies. We were also presenting a factual portrait of tribal life in late 20th Century America. In all regions of the country, tribes were involved in an astonishing range of economic activities. From the Menominee Tribe's forest products in Minnesota to the information technology investments by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of Montana, ancient cultures are providing both goods and services to 21st Century America. In Mississippi's delta region, the Mississippi Choctaw Tribe anchors the economy of an entire region. We believe that Tiller's Guide to Indian Country remains the only publication to focus on the economic viability as well as the cultural vitality of tribal nations and communities throughout modern America. We began on January 16, 2004, to collect information for this edition of TGIC, hoping as we did with the first edition to rely heavily on the tribes themselves for information and to check the accuracy of information from public sources. Through questionnaires, we heard from tribal governments, planning offices, economic development offices, public relations officers, chief executive officers (chairmen, governors, presidents, and chiefs), tribal administrators, and environmental protection coordinators. Through personal visits, e-mail, telephone conferences, faxes, and regular post, a blizzard of data and information flew back and forth. Agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Indian Health Service, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs cooperated with information provided through Without the support of a dedicated and hard-working team of writers, researchers, editors, proofreaders, a graphic designer, an indexer, and the Tiller Research project staff, this 2005 edition of Tiller's Guide would not have been completed. With an endeavor of this nature it is near impossible to thank everyone who contributed but there are various individuals who should be acknowledged.The main writers for Alaska were Edward C. McClure, Thomas Sanchez, and Tammy Moon. For the Lower 48 states, the primary writers were Andrea Hernandez Holm and Tammy Moon. Our special thanks and recognition go to Edward McClure and Andrea Holm, both first-class writers, for their keen analytical skills, and research and writing abilities. Tammy Moon, another excellent writer is also to be commended. Other contributing writers were Janet Fowler, Deborah Perlow, Suzy Baldwin, Joana Stancil, Brian Ramirez, and Stacey Moreton. Brian Ramirez was our lead internet researcher, working both on Alaska and the Lower 48 states.Assisting with the internet research were Nathan Fawcett and Derrick Lente. The technical editors for Tiller's Guide were Gary C. Cooper for Alaska and Shirley Coe for the Lower 48 states. Our proofreaders were Rebecca Hunter, Cheryl Slosberg, Florence Plecki and Janice St. Germain.All the graphics, including the cover design and page layout, were the work of Mary M. Velarde, who is especially acknowledged for her creativity, innovation, and untiring efforts in getting the guide to press. Providing us with indexing service was Francine Cronshaw of East Mountain Editing Services of Tijeras, New Mexico. TRI staff members who assisted with the management of this project were Stephanie D. Lucero,Annette Mckee, Stacey A. Moreton, Jennifer A. Smith, Courtney S. Folden, Cynthia Mauck, Vicki Finnegan, Stacey Velarde Sanchez, and Patricia Stappenbeck. A very special thank you goes to Roberta Serafin for her support and encouragement every step of the way. Tiller Research had a team of field researchers visiting Indian reservations, rancherias, and communities to collect data in various states and regions: Blair Lynn Velarde (southern California), Liana Staci Hesler (Oklahoma), Rita Yazzie (reservations near Phoenix, Arizona), and Derrick Lente (four New Mexico Pueblos). Visiting the tribes of Colorado, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, eastern Washington, and northern Utah were Everett Serafin, Roberta Serafin and Reba June Serafin. A special thanks goes to Roberta Serafin for her assistance with the trips to North and South Dakota; to Blair Lynn Velarde for the visits to the tribes of Kansas, Nebraska, western South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin; to Reba June Serafin for her visits with the Florida tribes; to Christina V. Harrison for the trips to northern California and northern Arizona; and to Mary Velarde for her visits to Maine tribes. Tiller's Guide to Indian Country would not be a premiere reference guide without the cooperation, kindness, and hospitality of the people of Indian Country. We cannot thank them enough for their input. There are two lists, the first, The Special Tribal Reviewers/Contributors, acknowledges those individuals who made a special effort by reviewing our draft profiles and