Tiller's Guide to Indian Country - Second Edition

Tiller’s Guide to INDIAN COUNTRY

©2005 by Veronica E. Velarde Tiller All rights reserved, Published in 2005 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. Tiller’s guide to Indian country : economic profiles of American Indian reservations / edited and compiled by Veronica E. Velarde Tiller.— 2005 ed. p. cm. “Featuring Honoring Nations from Harvard University’s Project on American Indian Economic Development.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-885931-04-7 (alk. paper) 1. Indian reservations—Economic aspects—United States—Directories. 2. Indians of North America—Economic conditions—Directories. 3. Indian business enterprises—United States—Directories. 4. Honoring Contributions in the Governance of American Indian Nations (Program) I. Title: Guide to Indian country. II. Title: Economic profiles of American Indian reservations. III. Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. IV. Title. E93.T55 2005 970.004’97—dc22 2005012917 Book Layout and Cover Design by Mary M. Velarde

Tiller’s Guide to INDIAN COUNTRY ECONOMIC PROFILES OF AMERICAN INDIAN RESERVATIONS Edited and Compiled by VERONICA E. VELARDE TILLER Featuring Honoring Nations from Harvard University's Project on American Indian Economic Development PUBLISHING COMPANY BowArrow Publishing Company Albuquerque, New Mexico USA

EDITOR’S FORWORD VI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In 1996, Tiller Research Inc.(TRI) was proud to produce Tiller's Guide to Indian Country (TGIC). The first of its type, our reference guide brought current, pertinent information about state and federally recognized Indian reservations to the bookshelves. It offered readers up-to-date and first-hand information about tribal nations, and gave Indian people a voice in the telling of their own histories. TGIC brought to the field a comprehensive guide to the economic status of reservations in this nation, providing data collected directly from tribes as well as from available resources. In gathering information for the 1996 edition, I realized that historical and anthropological information about tribal nations in the United States abounded, as did sterile statistical data. There was nothing, however, that presented tribes as living cultures, as vibrant economies, and as enduring communities that have persisted and sometimes prospered and flourished right alongside mainstreamAmerican society. The significance of our work became clear. With TGIC, we were not only compiling a thorough and accurate reference work, but we were adding life to the sterile statistics compiled by government. We were presenting an alternative image to the American stereotype of Indian reservations. We were showing how often tribes actually underpin local and regional economies. We were also presenting a factual portrait of tribal life in late 20th Century America. In all regions of the country, tribes were involved in an astonishing range of economic activities. From the Menominee Tribe's forest products in Minnesota to the information technology investments by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of Montana, ancient cultures are providing both goods and services to 21st Century America. In Mississippi's delta region, the Mississippi Choctaw Tribe anchors the economy of an entire region. We believe that Tiller's Guide to Indian Country remains the only publication to focus on the economic viability as well as the cultural vitality of tribal nations and communities throughout modern America. We began on January 16, 2004, to collect information for this edition of TGIC, hoping as we did with the first edition to rely heavily on the tribes themselves for information and to check the accuracy of information from public sources. Through questionnaires, we heard from tribal governments, planning offices, economic development offices, public relations officers, chief executive officers (chairmen, governors, presidents, and chiefs), tribal administrators, and environmental protection coordinators. Through personal visits, e-mail, telephone conferences, faxes, and regular post, a blizzard of data and information flew back and forth. Agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Indian Health Service, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs cooperated with information provided through Without the support of a dedicated and hard-working team of writers, researchers, editors, proofreaders, a graphic designer, an indexer, and the Tiller Research project staff, this 2005 edition of Tiller's Guide would not have been completed. With an endeavor of this nature it is near impossible to thank everyone who contributed but there are various individuals who should be acknowledged.The main writers for Alaska were Edward C. McClure, Thomas Sanchez, and Tammy Moon. For the Lower 48 states, the primary writers were Andrea Hernandez Holm and Tammy Moon. Our special thanks and recognition go to Edward McClure and Andrea Holm, both first-class writers, for their keen analytical skills, and research and writing abilities. Tammy Moon, another excellent writer is also to be commended. Other contributing writers were Janet Fowler, Deborah Perlow, Suzy Baldwin, Joana Stancil, Brian Ramirez, and Stacey Moreton. Brian Ramirez was our lead internet researcher, working both on Alaska and the Lower 48 states.Assisting with the internet research were Nathan Fawcett and Derrick Lente. The technical editors for Tiller's Guide were Gary C. Cooper for Alaska and Shirley Coe for the Lower 48 states. Our proofreaders were Rebecca Hunter, Cheryl Slosberg, Florence Plecki and Janice St. Germain.All the graphics, including the cover design and page layout, were the work of Mary M. Velarde, who is especially acknowledged for her creativity, innovation, and untiring efforts in getting the guide to press. Providing us with indexing service was Francine Cronshaw of East Mountain Editing Services of Tijeras, New Mexico. TRI staff members who assisted with the management of this project were Stephanie D. Lucero,Annette Mckee, Stacey A. Moreton, Jennifer A. Smith, Courtney S. Folden, Cynthia Mauck, Vicki Finnegan, Stacey Velarde Sanchez, and Patricia Stappenbeck. A very special thank you goes to Roberta Serafin for her support and encouragement every step of the way. Tiller Research had a team of field researchers visiting Indian reservations, rancherias, and communities to collect data in various states and regions: Blair Lynn Velarde (southern California), Liana Staci Hesler (Oklahoma), Rita Yazzie (reservations near Phoenix, Arizona), and Derrick Lente (four New Mexico Pueblos). Visiting the tribes of Colorado, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, eastern Washington, and northern Utah were Everett Serafin, Roberta Serafin and Reba June Serafin. A special thanks goes to Roberta Serafin for her assistance with the trips to North and South Dakota; to Blair Lynn Velarde for the visits to the tribes of Kansas, Nebraska, western South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin; to Reba June Serafin for her visits with the Florida tribes; to Christina V. Harrison for the trips to northern California and northern Arizona; and to Mary Velarde for her visits to Maine tribes. Tiller's Guide to Indian Country would not be a premiere reference guide without the cooperation, kindness, and hospitality of the people of Indian Country. We cannot thank them enough for their input. There are two lists, the first, The Special Tribal Reviewers/Contributors, acknowledges those individuals who made a special effort by reviewing our draft profiles and

EDITOR’S FORWORD VII ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS their web sites regarding federal programs and services to tribes. We were delighted to learn the extent to which these federal agencies themselves now turn to Tiller's Guide for authoritative information regarding their client communities. Long-time activists such as Comanche LaDonna Harris have succeeded admirably in demanding that Indian communities that were largely bypassed by the industrial revolution not be ignored by the information revolution. Most tribes, we discovered, now have their own web sites, as do a number of their individual tribal programs and enterprises. We also found a good deal of our own information from the 1996 edition on tribes' own websites. The internet was a key resource in developing this edition of Tiller's Guide to Indian Country. Where possible, we have provided links in this edition to individual tribal web sites for additional information. In addition to the research and inquiries conducted from our offices, we also dispatched a small army of field researchers, made up almost exclusively of my sisters and nieces, to visit more than 220 reservations and Indian communities in the "Lower 48" states. From treaty fishing "grounds" at the very mouth of the Klamath River in Oregon to the bottom of the Grand Canyon; from the Las Vegas-style Indian casinos of San Diego County to the tribal bison herds on the high plains of Montana and the Dakotas; and from the Florida Everglades to the island chain of the Penobscot River in Maine, we "kicked the tires" of Indian country USA for this 2005 edition of Tiller's Guide. We were confronted at every stop with evidence of an explosion of tribal economic activity in the past decade. The burgeoning gaming industry is the most publicized, and it has been remarkable. From the Florida Seminole Tribe's opening of a high stakes bingo hall in 1979, Indian gaming has grown to an $18 billion per year industry. Federal law requires formal agreements with surrounding states for the most sophisticated gaming operations, and for the most part these are negotiated successfully. Those disputes that do arise have all been resolved peacefully, although some have been the cause of serious consternation. When agents of the State of Arizona seized gaming machines on the Fort McDowell Reservation in Arizona, tribal members formed a human chain around the facility to prevent exit of either agents or machines without running over a tribal member. When the federal government seized tribal bank accounts of the Santee-Sioux of Nebraska for allegedly illegal gaming operations, the Mdewankton Sioux of Minnesota provided their Santee relatives with a $5 million grant to continue tribal operations until the dispute was resolved. In 2005, more than 225 tribes operate gaming facilities that generate revenues to improve tribal infrastructure, expand human services, even rewriting sections of profiles. They are tribal employees who care about their jobs, tribes, and people and want the general public to have accurate information about their tribes. Many of these individuals also hosted TRI staff while visiting their reservations and communities. They all made a valuable contribution to this guide. The second list, Tribal Personnel and Individuals, acknowledges tribal employees from various departments (executive, economic development, public relations, tribal administration, cultural preservation, libraries, environmental protection, and business corporations, to name a few) and individuals who provided Tiller Research with information about their tribes. These individuals contributed to the review of final draft profiles, or provided general assistance throughout the process. Many of the personnel and individuals assisted us by guiding us during our visits to their reservations, taking their valuable time to meet with us while we were there, giving us special and discounted rates, sending us in the right direction and to the right people on our quest to gather information, and showing us great kindness. We also wish to acknowledge the State of Alaska, Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Division of Community Advocacy, for all the wonderful information on the Alaskan Native Villages and communities available on their web site. Various Bureau of Indian Affairs Regional Offices throughout the United States provided us with their land acreage reports and we thank them for their information. A special thanks goes to Trib Choudary of the Navajo Nation Economic Development Department for his 2000 census data of all 562 federally recognized tribes. Providing us a useful listing for the educational statistics from the U.S. Census was Anita Choudary. Michael A. Corfman of Casino City Press of Newton, Massachusetts, allowed us access to his database, from which we received the latest information on Indian gaming statistics. We are also grateful to Imre Sutton for his leads to helpful and knowledgeable individuals in California.A sincere thanks to Amy Besaw, Andrew Lee, Jr., Shelly D. Coulter, Miriam Jorgensen, and Joseph P. Kalt of the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, Massachusetts for allowing us to include the Honoring Contributions in the Governance of American Indian Nations (popularly known as Honoring Nations) from 1999 to 2003 in Tiller's Guide. Senator Daniel K. Inouye of Hawaii, who has served for 28 years as the chairman and vice chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs has my deep appreciation for contributing to Tiller's Guide with his preface. Tiller's Guide is well illustrated with photographs. Taking the photographs in 2004 for Tiller Research were Everett Serafin, Reba June Serafin, Christina V. Harrison, Mary Velarde, Alyssa Davies, Derrick Lente, Liana Staci Hesler, and Blaine Lynn Velarde. Several photographs taken by Emily Tiller Frederiks for the 1996 edition were also included. Individuals who loaned us photographs were Lt. Governor Leon Roybal of San Ildelfonso Pueblo, New Mexico; Louis Weller of Weller Architects of Albuquerque, New Mexico; Larry Olsen of LA Olson & Associates of Billings, Montana; Mike Holleyman of HolleymanAssociates of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Joanna Murray of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Eagle Butte, South Dakota; and Darren Wright of Gay Head, Massachusetts. The Quinault Beach Resort of the Quinault Indian Nation of Washington, the National Park Service, and the Louisiana Office of Tourism also allowed us to use their photographs and we thank them. Other people who supported us and greatly deserve our appreciation are my husband, David C. Harrison, Patricia Zell, Former Democratic Staff Director/Chief Counsel, U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, and Edward J. Cadena, Deputy Director of the U.S. Small Business Administration from the New Mexico District, Albuquerque. Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, Ph.D. (Jicarilla Apache) Editor & Compiler Tiller Research, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico

SPECIAL TRIBAL REVIEWERS/CONTRIBUTORS: (Listed by state and reservation name) CALIFORNIA Lee Acebedo, Bill Mesa, Darlene Suarez (Jamul) Stan Anderson (Tuolumne) Carol Bill (Cold Springs) Diana Chihuahua, (Torres Martinez), Franklin A. Dancy, (Morongo) John Elliot (Manzanita), Juana Majel-Dixon (Pauma), Will Micklin, (Ewaiiaayp), Jerry Paresa (San Manuel); COLORADOEdwina Silas, Troy Ralstin, (Ute Mountain Ute) Edna Frost, Chuck Farago, Jim Formea, (Southern Ute); MAINEAlberta Downing, Melvin Francis, Sr., (Pleasant Point), Russell Dennis, (Aroostock) Don Levasseur, (Houlton Maliseet), Roger Ritter, Robert Tyler, (Indian River Township) Craig Sanborn, Tim Walton, (Penobscot); MASSACHUSETTSBeverly Wright (Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head); MICHIGANGeorge Beck (Lac Vieux Desert), William Mrdeza (Saginaw), Sue Spriver, Reneé Robinson (Sault Ste. Marie), Glenn Zaring, Jonnie J. Sam II, Bill Brooks, (Little River Band); MINNESOTAReneé Gale, Victoria White (Leech Lake); MONTANATheresa Aragon (Crow), Caroline Brown, (Fort Belknap), Bob Gauthier (Flathead), Joe Gervais, (Blackfeet); NEBRASKARick Thomas (Santee Sioux); NEW MEXICOBernadine Garcia (Acoma), Sharon Hausam (Sandia) , Andrew Othole (Zuni), Thora Padilla (Mescalero Apache), Kenneth Pin (Santo Domingo), Governor Tom Talache, Jr. (Nambé); NEVADAAnita Collins (Walker River), Chuck Rosenow, (RenoSparks); OKLAHOMAMargaret Anquoe (Cheyenne-Arapahoe), Ron Barnett (Thlopthlocco Creek), Guy Munroe and Ron Feazle (Kaw Nation), Carla Norman (Seminole), Tony Salazar (Kickapoo), Tamara Summerfield (Quapaw), Pam Wall (Creek Nation) Jennifer Smith; OREGONKevin Craig (Coquille), Kim Rogers (Grand Ronde), Michael Rondeau (Cow Creek), Francis Somday (Coos Bay); SOUTH CAROLINAGilbert Blue (Catawba); SOUTH DAKOTASam Allen (Santee Sioux), Denelle High Elk, Deanna Lebeau, Narcisse Rousseau (Cheyenne River Sioux), Ben Janis, Scott Jones, Toni Rouillard Wells (Lower Brule), Angie Johnson (Sisseton-Wahpeton), Myrna Leader Charge (Rosebud); TEXASSylvia Garcia, Carlos Hisa, (Ysleta de Sur Pueblo) Sharon Miller (AlabamaCoushatta) Margie Salazar (Kickapoo); UTAHArmand Accuttroop, (Uintah-Ouray) Bruce Perry (Northwestern Band); WASHINGTONKen Stocks, Paul Wilson (Kalispel), David Ernst, John Otterson (Spokane) Linda Cawyer, Annette Nesse (Jamestown S'Klallam), Natalie Charley, Rich Wells, Max Stocks, (Quinault), Leonard Forsman (Suquamish), Larry Goodrow (Skokomish), Joan Koenig (Squaxin Island), Casey Stevens (Stillaguamish), Tracie Stevens (Tulalip), Curt Wolters (Lummi); WISCONSINRichardAckley, Jr. (Mole Lake), Richard Hartmann (St. Croix), Wayne Lindemans (Red Cliff ), Denise Palmer, (Stockbridge-Munsee), Bobbi Webster (Oneida). Tribal Personnel and Individuals: (Listed by state and reservation name) ALABAMASandra Hiebert (Poarch Creek); ARIZONACollette Altaha (FortApache), Trib Choudary (Navajo Nation), Helema Andrews (Salt River Pima-Maricopa), Carl Antone (Gila River), Sabrina Campbell (Tohono O'odham), Marilyn Celestine, Jerry C. Holland, Walt Nader, Richard Carons (Tonto Apache), Michele Crank (Fort McDowell), Jack Ehrhart (Hualapai), Brian Golding, Sr. (Fort Yuma), Evelyn James (San Juan), Lynnia Key (San Carlos), Lincoln Manataja, Linda Mahone, (Havasupai), Gary Goforth, Nora McDowell (Fort Mojave), Chris Moss (Yavapai-Prescott), Letticia Baltazar, Luci Ponticelli (Pascua Yaqui), Fred Shupla, Royce M. Jenkins, (Hopi), Bartholomew Smith (Ak-Chin), Ted Smith, Sr., (Camp Verde), Paul Soto (Cocopah), Greg Sprawls, Cindy Homer, Veronica Murdock, Herman Lasson, Orlando Short, Sr., (Colorado River), Gary Tom (Kaibab); CALIFORNIATodd G. Hooks (Agua Caliente), Eileen Anthony (Chemehuevi), Wanda Balderama, Don Ray, Valeria Stanley, (Hopland), Steve Baldy (Big Lagoon), Leslie Keig (Alturas) Michelle Berditschevsky and Brandy Gemmill (Big Bend, Likely, Lookout, Montgomery Creek), Dino Beltran (Lower Lake), Loren Bommelyn, Dorothy Perry (Smith River), Angie Bill, Thelma Bradford, Karen Flores (Cortina), Reyna Beasley (Viejas), Debra Breidenbach-Sterling, Karen Kupcha (Augustine), Lavina Brooks, Peggy O'Neil, Arnie Nova, Willard Carlson (Yurok), Raymond Brown, Cheryl Steele, Sandy Thomas (Elem), Terry Brown, Mark Macarro, Jody de la Torre (Pechanga), Pam Baumgartner, Silvia Burley (Valley Miwok Tribe, California), Raymond Torres (Torres Martinez), Judy Cleveland (Big Valley), Anthony Collins, Georgia Tucker (Sycuan), Brian Connolly (Campo), Nancy Conrad, David Martinez (Cabazon), Lorraine Dalamino, Andrew Moro (Pala), Louise Davis (Redding), Becky Day (Tuolumne), Michel DeMers (North Fork), Butch Denny (Santa Rosa), Mike Despain (Greenville), Richard Drake (Fort Independence), Evelyn Duro, (Los Coyotes) Doug Elmets (Rumsey), Doug Elmets (United Auburn), Trina Fitzgerral (Sherwood Valley), Kathy Frazier (Enterprise), Tilda Green (San Pasqual), Wanda Green, Ray Martel, Terri Camarena (Elk Valley), Manuel Hamilton (Ramona), Rich Hoffman (Jackson), Michael Holman (Potter Valley), Jaclyn Traversie, Danny Jordan, Will Hostler, (Hoopa Valley), Loren Joseph (Lone Pine), Leslie Keig (Montgomery Creek), Joe Kennedy (Timbisha Shoshone), Lavon Kent (Quartz Valley), Bruce Klein (Bishop), Ron Knight, Don Rich (Pinoleville), Diana L. Kosar (Robinson), Irvin Lent (Big Pine), Cheryl Bettega, Ronald Lincoln. Sr. (Round Valley), Tom Linton (Morongo), David Lockart (Chico), Latisha Miller, Leslie Loshe develop educational programs, expand land holdings, and support local charities, public school systems, law enforcement agencies, emergency services, and health care facilities among others. Gaming in Indian country has generated its stereotype as false as any of those that preceded it, that all Indian tribes and individuals are now awash in gaming dollars. Not all tribes even have gaming operations, and a number of them have declined offer after offer to join the parade of gaming tribes. Many of these tribes still depend on the more traditional enterprises such as agriculture, mining, manufacturing, information and technology, arts and crafts, forestry, fisheries, communications, and tourism and recreation. The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe owns and operates one of the first Indian-owned radio stations in the country. The Oneida Nation of Wisconsin owns and operates successful agricultural enterprises, as do a number of tribes in the Southwest. The Osage Tribe of Oklahoma has produced oil and gas from its 1.4 million-acre estate in Oklahoma for a century. The Mescalero Apache Tribe in New Mexico operates three popular recreation and ski resorts. A number of tribes operate various enterprises on tribally owned industrial parks. And others boast business centers, office complexes, and commercial shopping malls on tribal lands. Natural resources continue to provide the backbone of many tribal economies. With an annual allowable cut of more than one billion board feet on a sustained yield basis, forestry promises to sustain some tribal economies for generations to come. Hundreds of millions of tons of low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal underlie thousands of acres of Western reservation lands. Oil and gas resources continue to flow from Indian lands, even as much of the industry shifts its efforts to offshore and foreign prospects. Rights to precious water throughout the major river basins of the West are seen as increasingly valuable, not only for agriculture but also for municipal and industrial use. More and more tribes are concentrating on instream flow requirements to maintain fisheries, wildlife habitat, and environmental values. Tribes are increasingly taking control of these valuable resources from the federal agencies that have traditionally managed them. In Arizona, the Ak-Chin Indian Community has persevered to see implementation of the nearly thirty-year-old Ak-Chin Water Settlement Act of 1978. The Southern Ute Tribe stood virtually alone for as long to see ground broken on the Animas-La Plata Project, perhaps the last major water development project for the Bureau of Reclamation. In the northwest, tribes have secured water to preserve their treaty-protected fishing rights to anadromous fisheries. Many tribes are investing proceeds from their EDITOR’S FOREWORD VIII

EDITOR’S FORWORD IX economic activities to expand their land base and to reacquire ancestral homelands. More and more tribes are diversifying their economies in order to maintain sacred sites and regions of incomparable beauty in their natural states. In addition to economic growth in Indian country, we have also witnessed over the last several years the recognition and restoration of a number of tribal nations to federal status, such as the Ione Miwok Band in California (1994), Lower Lake Rancheria Koi Nation (2000) the Cowlitz Indian Tribe of Washington (2002) and the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish commonly known as the Gun Lake Tribe (1998). It is important to note that even today, there remain numerous tribal communities across the country with no federal recognition. Some, like the Independent or Traditional Seminole of Florida, seem to have no interest in gaining state or federal recognition, while still others continue to fight for it. The economic relationship between tribal nations and non-Indian communities and governments in general has changed dramatically as well in the last decade. In a number of instances, tribes have become the largest employers in the communities, counties, and regions in which they are located. During the late 1990s in Connecticut, the Mohegan tribe and the Mashantucket Pequot tribes combined offered nearly 16,000 jobs to the general public, exceeding the number of jobs lost in federal defense cuts in the state. The Mashantucket Pequot is the single largest private employer in that state and its casino alone provides over 11,000 employment opportunities. Direct employment opportunities are not the only contributions that tribes make to local economies. Particularly among tribes with casinos and gaming enterprises, tribal monies support improvements to the local infrastructure (road, sewer, water, and waste disposal system), emergency services, and businesses and enterprises. Tribes also contribute substantial funds to educational programs, health facilities, and non-profit organizations. And tribes are also quick to assist others when possible-during aftermath of the terrorist attacks in New York city on September 11, 2001, the Mashantucket Pequot tribe utilized its high-speed ferry system, Fox Navigation, to evacuate victims from and to transport medical personnel to the Twin Towers. Tribes from across the nation, both large and small, offered millions of dollars in assistance to the recovery and rescue efforts. And in 2002, the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe hosted the largest event ever held at its casino, a recognition ceremony in honor of the 800 tribal members of the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcement Iron Union, many of whom worked tirelessly at Ground Zero. (Paskenta), James Mackay (Susanville), Vickey Macias (Cloverdale), Scott McCrea (Mesa Grande), Nancy McDarment, John Nash (Tule River), Melba Burress (Berry Creek), Elizabeth Elgin DeRouen, Lailia DeRouen (Dry Creek), Sean Minder (Bridgeport), Virgil Moorehead (Big Lagoon), Renee Brown, Shannon Morganson (Colusa), Rhonda Morningstar Pope (Buena Vista), Barbara Murphy (Redding), Jeff Murray (Shingle Springs), Tracy Nelson (La Jolla), Greg Nesty (Trinidad), Elizabeth Hansen, Mary Nevarez, Judy Fisch (Redwood Valley), Ted Ochoa (Coyote Valley), Rebecca Osuna, Melissa Castro (Inaja-Cosmit), Gwendolyn Parada, James Hill (La Posta), Rick Poe (Manchester Point), Virginia Sutter (Manchester Point), Lloyd Powell (Cedarville), LaMar Price, Brandie Taylor, (Santa Ysabel) Arla Ramsey (Blue Lake), Lisa Rathbun (Guidiville), Carol Reeves (Rohnerville), Lorell Ross (Graton), Michael Russell (Table Mountain), Jerome Salgado, Sr., (Cahuilla), Tootie Sam (Fort Bidwell), Joseph Saulque (Benton Paiute), Tammy Peevler, Rob Shaffer (Rincon), Cheryl Seidner, Maura Eastman (Table Bluff), Robert Selgado, Sr., Vicki Varres (Soboba), Jose Simon, Pamela Reyes-Gutierrez (Middletown), David Smith (Santa Ynez), Eliza Swearinger (Grindstone Indian), Brandie Taylor (Santa Ysabel), Cristy Taylor, Merle Stevenson, Debra Sanders, (Laytonville), Robert Stone, Guy Taylor (Mooretown), Leanna Thomas (Twenty-Nine Palms), Sue Thomas, Cheryl Hinton (Barona), Sandi Tripp, Sara Spence (Karuk), Iris Picton, David Tomas (Upper Lake), Donald Valenzuela (Resighini), Juan Mancias, Rose Mary Want (Scotts Valley); CONNECTICUTArthur Henick (Mashantucket Pequot), Chuck Bunnell, Kevin Meisner, Dale White, Melissa Zobel (Mohegan); FLORIDAWanda Bowers, Sally Tommy, Sandy Selner (Seminole); IOWA Alison Davenport (Sac and Fox); IDAHO Francis Devereaux, Charles Morris, (Coeur d'Alene), Rosemary A. Devinney, Jon Norstog, Darrel Shay (Fort Hall), Cassandra Kipp (Nez Perce), Patty Perry (Kootenai); KANSASLouis DeRoin, Joana Comer, Leon Campbell, (Iowa), Christopher W. Dunn, H. Jason Auvil, (Kickapoo), Nancy Keller, Gina Kneib, Don Bucky Pilcher (Sac and Fox), Latane N. Donelin, Jon Bursaw, Ryan Dyer, Verna Simon (Prairie Band Potawatomi); LOUISIANAEarl Barbry, Jr. (Tunica-Biloxi), Jason Emery, Kim Walden (Chitimacha), Phyllis Nicols (Coushatta), Walter Nope (Jena Band); MASSACHUSETTS Victoria Wright, Darren Wright, (Gay Head); MAINERosa McNally, Norma Jean Saulis, John Ouedellett, Jerolyn Ireland, (Aroostook); MICHIGANKathy Adair (Bay Mills), Dave Anthony, Ken Meshigaud (Hannahville), Dan Green (Pine Creek), Kim Klopstein (L'Anse), Michelle Lacount, Su Lantz (Little Traverse Bay Bands), John Miller (Pokagon), Sandra Raphael (Grand Traverse), Bill Brooks, Mark Dougher, Jay Sam, (Little River), Andrew Sprague (Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish), Crista Payment, (Sault Ste. Marie); MINNESOTAMitch Corbine (Mille Lacs), Stephanie Fox, Diane Ralston (Prairie Island), Gary Fuller, Roger Head (Red Lake), Jason Hollinday, Dennis Peterson, Margaret Robideaux (Fond du Lac), Su Lantz (Upper Sioux Community), Ann Larson, Dawn Pendleton (Lower Sioux), Tessa Lehto (Shakopee), Dana Logan (Grand Portage), Mike Triplett (White Earth); MISSISSIPPI Kevin Edwards (Choctaw); MONTANAShawn Real Bird, Noel Two Leggins, (Crow), Larry Morsette, Jr., Marva Stump (Rocky Boy), C. John Healy, Sr., Carol Stiffarm, (Fort Belknap), Joe Little Coyote, Geri Small, (Northern Cheyenne), Dennis Fitzpatrick, Ed Wagner, Debora Juarez (Blackfeet), Rodney Miller, Jim Rued, Don Ewert, Lee Abbott (Fort Peck); NEBRASKAJanet Bass, John Blackhawk, Virgil Free, Louie Houghton, Joi Long (Winnebago), John Fremont, Tony Provost (Omaha), Caroll Kitchi, Chris Weber (Ponca), James Trudell (Santee Sioux); NEVADAGreg Holley, Bernice Lalo, Donna Hill, (Battle Mountain), Garrett Furuichi, Val Nevers (Carson), Maria Barry, Herman Atkins, Lindsey Manning (Duck Valley), Lisa Ann George, Virginia Sanchez, Carrie Sligar (Duckwater), Gloria Two Eagles, Fermina Stevens (Elko), Christine Stones (Ely), Larry Curly, Robert Valpert (Fallon), Karen Cruthcher (Fort McDermitt), Gloria Hernandez, Alfreda Mitre (Las Vegas), Monty George, Harry Summerfield, Glen Wason (Lovelock), Phil Swain (Moapa), David Koch, John Van Etten, Tim Wadsworth (Pyramid Lake), Lorayn London, (South Fork), Garrett Furuichi, (Stewart) Robyn Berdette, Julie Crutcher (Summit Lake), Elwood Mose, Ursula Powers, (Te-Moak Tribe), Anita Collins, Richard Whitefeather (Walker River), Kristi Begay (Wells Band), Linda Ayer, Tom Watson (Winnemucca), Garrett Furuichi (Woodfords), Wayne Garcia, Duane Masters, (Yerington), Dennis Bill, Lisa Kagel (Yomba); NEW MEXICOHerman Agoya, Earl Salazar (San Juan), Clee Melvin (Cochiti), Rob Ariwite (Laguna), John Armijo, Timothy Armijo, Marlene Gachupin (Jemez), Everett Serafin, Alberta Velarde (Jicarilla Apache), Laura Benavidez, Paul Rainberg (Nambé), William Christian, Melissa Gipson, Elmer Torres, Leon T. Roybal (San Ildefonso), Charles Dorame, Carol Woods (Tesuque), Michael Eriacho, Jerry Pino, Sr. (Ramah), Lori Vincente, Denise Garandonegro (Alamo), Tina Romero, Millie Weller (Taos), Ava Hanna (Zuni), Valentina Herrera (San Felipe), Nora Morris (To'Hajiilee), Daniel Moya, George Rivera (Pojoaque), Peter Pino, Stanley Pino, Tammy Pino (Zia) Brian Ramirez, Calvin Tafoya (Santa Clara), Lorraine Snake (Picurís), Nathan Tsosie (Santa Ana), Phil Tsosie (Isleta); NEW YORKMark Emery (Oneida), Darwin Hills (Tonawanda), William Papineau, Sheree Bonaparte, (St. Regis Mohawk), Millie Fox, Karla Nephew, Gina Paradis, Carol Thompson, Natalie Hemlock, Martin Seneca, Jr. (Seneca/Allegany and Cattaraugus), Alma Patterson, Kenneth Patterson (Tuscarora), Irving Powless (Onondaga),Anita Thompson, Sharon LeRoy (Cayuga); NORTH CAROLINA Sarah Crow (Eastern Cherokee); NORTH DAKOTA John Allery (Turtle Mountain), Charlie Murphy (Standing Rock) Glenda Embry, Marion Spotted Bear (Fort Berthold), Kenny Graywater (Spirit Lake), Angie Johnson (Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux), OKLAHOMA: Lionel Ahdunko, Pam Baumgartner (Caddo), Judy Allen, Gary Whitedeer (Choctaw), Deborah Bailey (Sac and Fox), Ron Barnett Tribal Personnel and Individuals: (Listed by state and reservation name) [continued]

The growing economic stability among tribal nations is also allowing tribes to provide assistance to one another. The Mohegan Tribal Nation in Connecticut has achieved such financial success through its enterprises that in 1997, it returned $2.2 million to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. It has since returned its allotted federal funds so that they may be redistributed to tribes with greater economic need. The Mdewankton Sioux Tribe of Minnesota has donated more than $100 million to less fortunate tribes throughout the country. A number of tribal nations have formed economic partnerships, political alliances, and commissions such as the Northwoods Niiji Enterprise Community, Inc. (NNEC), Four Fires LLC, and the Eight Northern Indian Pueblos Council. These organizations promote economic growth; ensure representation at the city, state, and federal level; and support cultural retention and preservation. The twin explosions of economic activity and information on the superhighway in Indian country have forced difficult editorial decisions in this edition. In the Lower 48, we left the information highway and hit the real highway from coast to coast and border to border. The sheer size of Alaska and the absence of real highways to many villages prohibited that approach. We did establish contacts in as many villages as possible, as well as with Alaska Native organizations and corporations. The scope and magnitude of economic activity among Alaska Natives convinced us to deal separately in this edition with the Alaska Native Corporations, with new categories and subsections in an attempt to capture the amazing entrepreneurial spirit that has emerged among them. It is difficult to convey the apparent dichotomy presented by an Inupiat Village President directing the terms of a multi-million dollar acquisition from his position in a walrus-hide whaling boat in the Arctic Ocean. I call it an apparent dichotomy because it is unfathomable to most of us. He simply calls it a day in his life, tending to both his corporate and his traditional responsibilities. We have been honored by the courtesy, professionalism, hospitality, and friendship extended to us by the many people we have encountered, and we thank them for their kindnesses. We appreciate the recognition of our efforts to provide our readers with comprehensive, accurate, and appropriate information about America's tribal nations. It is our hope that we our readers, both our past and new readers, will have a better understanding of Indian Country with this new edition of Tiller's Guide. EDITOR’S FOREWORD X Tribal Personnel and Individuals: (Listed by state and reservation name) [continued] (Thlopthlocco Creek), Chief Bearskin, Ellis Enyart (Wyandotte), Kenneth Blanchard, Jean Kovacs, Anna Dereberry Livingston (Absentee Shawnee), Aaron Brummett (Eastern Shawnee), Michael Burgess, Vicki Canfield, Laura Harris, Joene Schonch (Comanche), Carter Camp (Ponca), Vickie Canfield (Citizen Potawatomi Nation), Juana Chaddlesone (WichitaAgency), Michael Darrow, Steve Buckner, Timothy Harjo (Fort Sill), Rhonda Dixon (Ottawa), Betty Durkee, Thomas Fredericks, Guy Munroe (Kaw), Bill Fife (Alabama-Quassarte) Robyn Elliott, Brad Fortner (Chickasaw), John Froman (Peoria), Michelle Garcia, Diane Jobe (Iowa), Michael Gawhega (Otoe-Missouria), Bobby Jay (Apache), Julia Lookout, Carrie Rogers, Anthony Whitehorn (Osage), Carl Martin (Tonkawa), Diane Moppin, Tarpie Yargee (Alabama Quassarte), Julie Moss, Laverna Stapleton (United Keetoowah), Julie Olds (Miami), Martha Perez, Martha Koomsa-Perez, (Kiowa), Jim Rementer (Delaware), Sandy Selner (Seminole), Dennis Sisco (Seneca-Cayuga), Chadwick Smith, Felcia Wing, Melissa Young (Cherokee Nation), Jennifer Smith (Muscogee Creek), Julia Syitakf (Cheyenne-Arapaho), Lindsey Teter (Pawnee), Patricia Trolinger (Modoc) Jeff Whekins (Delaware); OREGONPam Lynn Barlow, Sherri Groh (Siletz), Michael Clements, Ray Rangela, Lavonne Rotz, Sal Sahme (Warm Springs), Teresa Crane, Joan Deroko, Bill Tovey (Umatilla), Howard Crombie, Pat Davis, (Coos Bay), Kenton Dick, (Burns Paiute), Barbara Kirk, Loren Schonchin (Klamath), Keith Hatch (Celilo Village), Mark Healy (Coquille), Kim Rogers (Grand Ronde), Sheri Shaffer (Cow Creek); RHODE ISLANDEric Wilcox (Narragansett); SOUTH CAROLINAGilbert Blue (Catawba); SOUTH DAKOTA Fabian Betone, Denelle High Elk, Edward Raventon, Narcisse Rousseau, Emily Smith (Cheyenne River Sioux), Duane Big Eagle, Frank Lawrence, Quintin Mghee (Crow Creek), Micheal Jandreau (Lower Brule), Vonnie Bush (Pine Ridge), Philmon Two Eagles, Charles Columbe, Robert Moore, Steve Emery (Rosebud), Elliott Halsey (Yankton), Judith H. Petersen, Thomas R. Allen, (Flandreau Santee Sioux); TEXAS Arturo Sinclair; UTAH, Robert Colorow, Maxine Natchee (Uintah and Ouray), Chrissandra Murphy, Paul Tsosie (Goshute), Beverly Slack (Skull Valley), Laura Tom (Paiute); WASHINGTONRyland Bowechop, Bud Denney (Makah), Henry Cagey (Lummi), Teri Johnson-Davis, Jerry Meninick, Kevin Shendo (Yakama), Dennis Crawford (Quileute), Nancy DeCouteau, Gloria Green, Jason Joseph, David Shaw (Sauk-Suiattle), Phil Dorn, Sally Kass, Barrett Schmanska (Port Gamble), John Halliday (Muckleshoot), Jeff Hertz (Nooksack), Cynthia Iyall (Nisqually), Rick Landers (Samish), Lennea Magnus (Chehalis), John Miller (Lower Elwha), Carolee Morris (Cowlitz), Ray Mullen (Snoqualmie), Charlene Nelson (Shoalwater Bay), Charles O'Hara, Allen Rozema (Swinomish), Gary Passmore (Colville), Harry Pateus (Upper Skagit), Victoria Pavel (Skokomish), Francis Cullooyah, Thomas Sawyer, Alice Ignace (Aunt Alice) (Kalispel), Donna Scott (Hoh), Bill Veliz, John Weymer, Judy Wright (Puyallup), Crystal Thompson (Quinault); WISCONSINBrian Kowalkowski, John Chapman, Michael Chapman, Carrie Grignon, Renee Mahkimetas, Jeremy Weso, Allen W. Quinney (Menominee), Emerson Coy, Leanna Coy, Gloria Cobb, Brian Gauthier (Lac du Flambeau), Gus Frank (Forest County Potawatomi), Colene Frye (St. Croix), Larry Garvin, Tracy L. Littlejohn, Paul Rosheim, Stewart J. Miller (Ho-Chunk), Kevin Hasterballer, Luann Wiggins, Sue Erickson, (Bad River), Jill Martin, (Stockbridge-Munsee), Ray DePerry, (Red Cliff), Pam Rebitzke, Toni Phillite, Thomas Vanzile, (Mole Lake), Paul Dianah Ton (Lac Courte Oreilles), John Brueninger, Bobbi Webster (Oneida); WYOMINGRichard Brannan, Mike La Jeunesse (Wind River).

XI TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Page Page ALABAMA Poarch Creek Reservation 1 ALASKA Introduction 3 Adak 41 Afognak 42 Agdaagux 42 Akhiok 43 Akiachak 45 Akiak 46 Akutan 47 Alakanuk 48 Alatna 49 Aleknagik 49 Algaaciq 51 Allakaket 52 Ambler 53 Anaktuvuk Pass 54 Anchorage and Fairbanks 55 Andreafsky 56 Angoon 56 Aniak 57 Annette Island Reserve 58 Anvik 59 Arctic Village 59 Asa'carsarmiut 60 Atka 61 Atkasook 62 Atmautluak 62 Atqasuk 63 Barrow 64 Beaver 65 Belkofski 66 Bethel 66 Bill Moore's Slough 66 Birch Creek 66 Brevig Mission 67 Buckland 68 Cantwell 69 Chalkyitsik 70 Chanega 71 Cheesh-Na 72 Chefornak 73 Chenega, Chenega Bay 73 Chevak 74 Chickaloon 75 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 76 Chignik 78 Chignik Lagoon 79 Chignik Lake 80 Chilkat 81 Chilkoot 82 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 83 Chinik 85 Chistochina 85 Chitina 86 Chuathbaluk 87 Chuloonawick 88 Circle 88 Clark's Point 89 Copper Center 90 Cordova 90 Council 90 Craig 90 Crooked Creek 91 Curyung 92 Deering 94 Dillingham 94 Diomede 95 Dot Lake 96 Douglas 96 Dutch Harbor 96 Eagle 97 Eek 98 Egegik 99 Eklutna 100 Ekuk 100 Ekwok 101 Elim 102 Emmonak 103 English Bay 103 Evansville 104 Eyak 105 False Pass 106 Fort Yukon 107 Gakona 108 Galena 109 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 110 Gambell 112 Georgetown 113 Golovin 113 Goodnews Bay 114 Grayling 115 Gulkana 116 Haines 116 Hamilton 116 Healy Lake 117 Holikachuk 117 Holy Cross 117 Hoonah 118 Hooper Bay 119 Hughes 120 Huslia 121 Hydaburg 122 Igiugig 123 Iliamna 124 Inalik 125 Iqurmuit 125 Ivanoff Bay 127 Juneau 127 Kaguyak 127 Kake 128 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 129 Kaktovik 131 Kalskag 132 Kaltag 133 Kanatak 134 Karluk 134 Kasaan 135 Kasigluk 136 Kenai, Kenaitze 127 Ketchikan 137 Kiana 139 King Cove 140 King Island 140 King Salmon 140 Kipnuk 142 Kivalina 143 Klawock 144 Klukwan 145 Kluti-Kaah 145 Knik 146 Kobuk 147 Kodiak 148 Kokhanok 148 Koliganek 149 Kongiganak 149 Kotlik 150 Kotzebue 152 Koyuk 154 Koyukuk 155 Kwethluk 156 Kwigillingok 158 Kwinhagak 159 Larsen Bay 161 Lesnoi 162 Levelock 162 Lime Village 164 Louden Village 164 Lower Kalskag 165 Manley Hot Springs 166 Manokotak 167 Marshall 169 Mary's Igloo 170 McGrath 170 Mekoryuk 172 Mentasta 173 Metlakatla 174 Minto 175 Mountain Village 176 Naknek 177 Nanwalek 179 Napaimute 180 Napakiak 180 Napaskiak 181 Nelson Lagoon 183 Nenana 184 New Allakaket 186 New Koliganek 187 New Stuyahok 188 Newhalen 189 Newtok 190 Nightmute 191 Nikolai 193 Nikolski 194 Ninilchik 195 Noatak 197 Nome 198 Nondalton 200 Nooiksut 201 Noorvik 201 Northway Village 203 Nuiqsut 204 Nulato 206 Nunakauyarmiut 207 Nunam Iqua 208 Nunapitchuk 209 Ohgsenakale 210 Ohogamiut 210 Old Harbor 210 Orutsararmuit 212 Oscarville 213 Ouzinkie 214 Paimiut 216 Pauloff Harbor 216 Pedro Bay 216 Perryville 217 Petersburg 219 Pilot Point 219 Pilot Station 221

XII Pitka's Point 222 Platinum 223 Point Hope 224 Point Lay 226 Port Graham 227 Port Heiden 229 Port Lions 231 Portage Creek 233 Pribilof Islands 234 Qagan Tayagungin 237 Qawalangin 238 Quinhagak 239 Rampart 239 Red Devil 240 Ruby 242 Russian Mission 242 Saint George 242 Saint Mary's 242 Saint Michael 243 Saint Paul 244 Salamatoff 244 Sand Point 245 Savoonga 245 Saxman 247 Scammon Bay 248 Selawik 249 Seldovia Village 250 Shageluk 251 Shaktoolik 252 Sheldon's Point 252 Shishmaref 253 Shoonaq' 254 Shungnak 255 Sitka 256 Skagway 256 Sleetmute 257 Solomon 258 South Naknek 258 Stebbins 259 Stevens Village 260 Stony River 261 Takotna 262 Tanacross 263 Tanana 264 Tatitlek 265 Tazlina 266 Telida 267 Teller 268 Tetlin 269 Togiak 270 Toksook Bay 271 Tuluksak 271 Tuntutuliak 272 Tununak 273 Twin Hills 274 Tyonek 275 Ugashik 276 Umkumiute 277 Unalakleet 277 Unalaska 278 Unga 278 Upper Kalskag 278 Venetie 278 Wainwright 280 Wales 281 White Mountain 282 Woody Island 283 Wrangell 283 Yakutat 284 ARIZONA Ak-Chin Reservation 287 Camp Verde Yavapai-Apache Reservation 288 Cocopah Indian Reservation 292 Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation 294 Fort Apache Indian Reservation 298 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 301 Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation 303 Fort Mojave Reservation 304 Fort Yuma-Quechan Tribe Reservation 305 Gila River Reservation 306 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 309 Havasupai Reservation 314 Hopi Reservation 316 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 320 Hualapai Indian Reservation 322 Kaibab Paiute Indian Reservation 324 Navajo Nation 326 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 334 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 335 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 336 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 339 Pascua Yaqui Reservation 342 Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 344 San Carlos Apache Reservation 347 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 350 San Juan Southern Paiute Council 351 Tohono O'odham Reservation 352 Tonto Apache Reservation 354 Yavapai-Prescott Reservation 356 Zuni Pueblo (see NM) 357 CALIFORNIA Introduction 359 Agua Caliente Indian Reservation 363 Alturas Rancheria 365 Augustine Reservation 365 Barona Band of Mission Indians Reservation 366 Benton Paiute Reservation 369 Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians 370 Big Bend Rancheria 371 Big Lagoon Rancheria 371 Big Pine Reservation 373 Big Sandy Rancheria Band of Western Mono Indians 374 Big Valley Rancheria 376 Bishop Reservation 378 Blue Lake Rancheria 380 Bridgeport Reservation 382 Buena Vista Rancheria 383 Cabazon Reservation 384 Cahuilla Reservation 386 California Valley Miwok Tribe 387 Campo Reservation 388 Capitan Grande Reservation 390 Cedarville Rancheria 390 Chemehuevi Reservation 391 Chicken Ranch Rancheria 393 Chico Rancheria 394 Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians 395 Cold Springs Rancheria 396 Colorado River Tribe (see AZ) Cachil DeHe Band of Wintun Indians of the Colusa Indian Community 397 Cortina Indian Rancheria 398 Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians Reservation 400 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 402 Cuyapaipe Reservation (see Ewiiaapaayp, CA) Dry Creek Rancheria 403 Elem Indian Colony 404 Elk Valley Rancheria 406 Enterprise Rancheria 408 Ewiiaapaayp Indian Reservation 409 Fort Bidwell Reservation 410 Fort Independence Paiute Reservation 411 Fort Mojave Reservation 412 Fort Yuma (see AZ) Graton Rancheria 415 Greenville Rancheria 416 Grindstone Indian Rancheria 417 Guidiville Rancheria 418 Hoopa Valley Reservation 419 Hopland Reservation 422 Inaja-Cosmit Reservation 424 Ione Band of Miwok Indians 425 Jackson Rancheria 426 Jamul Indian Village 427 Karuk 428 La Jolla Reservation 430 La Posta Reservation 431 Laytonville Rancheria 432 Likely Rancheria 434 Lone Pine Reservation 434 Lookout Rancheria 435 Los Coyotes Reservation 436 Lower Lake Rancheria 437 Manchester Point Arena Rancheria 438 Manzanita Reservation 439 Mesa Grande Reservation 440 Middletown Rancheria 441 Montgomery Creek Rancheria 442 Mooretown Rancheria 443 Morongo Reservation 444 North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians 446 Pala Reservation 447 Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians Rancheria 448 Pauma and Yuima Reservation 449 Pechanga Reservation 450 Picayune Rancheria 452 Pinoleville Rancheria 453 Pit River Tribes 454 Potter Valley Rancheria 455 Quartz Valley Indian Community 456 Ramona Reservation 457 Redding Rancheria 458 Redwood Valley Rancheria 459 Resighini Rancheria 460 Rincon Reservation 461 Roaring Creek Rancheria 463 Robinson Rancheria 463 Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria 465 Round Valley Indian Reservation 466 Rumsey Indian Rancheria 468 San Manuel Reservation 470 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Page Page

XIII San Pasqual Reservation 472 Santa Rosa Rancheria 473 Santa Rosa Reservation 474 Santa Ynez Reservation 475 Santa Ysabel Reservation 477 Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of the Sugar Bowl Rancheria 478 Sheep Ranch Rancheria (see California Valley Miwok Tribe) Sherwood Valley Rancheria 479 Shingle Springs Rancheria 481 Smith River Rancheria 482 Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians 484 Sulpher Bank (see Elem Indian Reservation) Susanville Indian Rancheria 485 Sycuan Rancheria 487 Table Bluff Reservation 489 Table Mountain Rancheria 490 Timbisha Shoshone Reservation 491 Torres Martinez Reservation 492 Trinidad Rancheria 493 Tule River Reservation 495 Tuolumne Rancheria 496 Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation 498 United Auburn Indian Community 498 Upper Lake Rancheria 500 Viejas Reservation 501 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 504 Washoe Reservation (see NV) X-L Ranch Reservation 506 Yurok Reservation 506 COLORADO Southern Ute Reservation 509 Ute Mountain Ute Reservation 512 CONNECTICUT Mashantucket Pequot Reservation 517 Mohegan Indian Reservation 519 FLORIDA Introduction 523 Big Cypress Reservation 526 Brighton Reservation 527 Fort Pierce Reservation 528 Hollywood Reservation 528 Immokalee Reservation 529 Miccosukee Reservation 530 Poarch Creek Reservation (see Poarch Creek Reservation, AL) Tampa Reservation 531 IDAHO Coeur d'Alene Reservation 533 Duck Valley Reservation (see Duck Valley, NV) Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 537 Fort Hall Reservation 538 Kootenai Reservation 542 Nez Perce Reservation 544 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 547 IOWA Sac & Fox Reservation 549 KANSAS Iowa Reservation 551 Kickapoo Reservation 552 Prairie Band Potawatomi Reservation 554 Sac and Fox Reservation 557 LOUSIANA Chitimacha Reservation 559 Coushatta Reservation 561 Jena Band of Choctaw Reservation 562 Tunica-Biloxi Reservation 563 MAINE Passamaquoddy Tribe of Maine Introduction 565 Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians 566 Houlton Maliseet Reservation 569 Indian Township Reservation 571 Penobscot Reservation 572 Pleasant Point Reservation 575 MASSACHUSETTS Gay Head Reservation 577 MICHIGAN Bay Mills Chippewa Reservation 581 Grand Traverse Reservation 583 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 585 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 585 Hannahville Reservation 586 Pine Creek 588 Isabella Reservation 590 Lac Vieux Desert Reservation 592 L'anse Reservation (Keweenaw Bay) 593 Little River Band of Ottawa Indians 595 Little Traverse Bay Bands Reservation 597 Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish 599 Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians 600 Sault Ste. Marie Reservation 602 MINNESOTA Bois Forte Reservation 605 Fond du Lac Reservation 607 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 609 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 610 Grand Portage Reservation 611 Leech Lake Reservation 613 Lower Sioux Reservation 617 Mille Lacs Reservation 619 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 623 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 624 Prairie Island Community 625 Red Lake Band Reservation 627 Shakopee Reservation (Prior Lake) 630 Upper Sioux Reservation 632 White Earth Reservation 635 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 639 MISSISSIPPI Choctaw Reservation 643 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 644 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 645 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 647 MONTANA Blackfeet Reservation 649 Crow Reservation 653 Flathead Reservation 655 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 659 Fort Belknap Reservation 661 Fort Peck Reservation 664 Northern Cheyenne Reservation 667 Rocky Boy's Reservation 670 NEBRASKA Iowa Reservation (see Iowa Reservation, KS) Omaha Reservation 673 Pine Ridge Reservation (see Pine Ridge, SD) Ponca Tribe of Nebraska 675 Sac and Fox Reservation (see Sac and Fox, KS) Santee Sioux Nation 676 Winnebago Nebraska Reservation 677 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 681 NEVADA Battle Mountain Reservation 683 Carson Colony 684 Dresslerville Colony 685 Duck Valley Reservation 686 Duckwater Reservation 689 Elko Colony 690 Ely Shoshone Reservation 691 Fallon Colony and Reservation 692 Fort McDermitt Reservation 694 Goshute Pauite Tribe of Utah and Nevada (see Goshute, UT) Las Vegas Colony and Reservation 696 Lovelock Colony 697 Moapa River Reservation 698 Pyramid Lake Reservation 700 Reno-Sparks Colony 702 South Fork Reservation 704 Stewart Indian Colony 705 Summit Lake Reservation 705 Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone 706 Walker River Reservation 707 Washoe Reservation 709 Wells Band Colony 711 Winnemucca Colony 712 Woodfords Colony 713 Yerington Colony and Reservation 714 Yomba Colony 715 NEW MEXICO Acoma Pueblo 717 Alamo Reservation 719 Cañoncito Reservation (see To'Hajiilee Reservation) Cochiti Pueblo 720 Isleta Pueblo 722 Jemez Pueblo 724 Jicarilla Apache Reservation 727 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 733 Laguna Pueblo 734 Mescalero Apache Reservation 736 Nambé Pueblo 738 Navajo Reservation (see Navajo, AZ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Page Page

XIV Picuris Pueblo 741 Pojoaque Pueblo 743 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 745 Ramah Pueblo 746 San Felipe Pueblo 748 San Ildefonso Pueblo 750 San Juan Pueblo 752 Sandia Pueblo 753 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 756 Santa Ana Pueblo 756 Santa Clara Pueblo 759 Santo Domingo Pueblo 761 Taos Pueblo 762 Tesuque Pueblo 764 To'Hajiilee Reservation (formerly Cañoncito Navajo) 766 Ute Mountain Reservation (see Ute Mountain, CO) Zia Pueblo 767 Zuni Pueblo 769 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 771 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 773 NEW YORK Seneca Nation Introduction 775 Allegany Reservation 777 Cattaraugus Reservation 778 Cayuga Nation 779 Oil Springs Reservation 780 Oneida Reservation 780 Onondaga Reservation 782 St. Regis Mohawk Reservation 784 Tonawanda Reservation 787 Tuscarora Nation 788 NORTH CAROLINA Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Reservation 789 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 790 NORTH DAKOTA Fort Berthold Indian Reservation 793 Lake Traverse Reservation (see Lake Traverse, SD) Spirit Lake (formerly Devil's Lake Sioux Reservation) 796 Standing Rock Reservation (see Standing Rock, SD) Turtle Mountain Reservation and Trenton Indian Service Area 799 OKLAHOMA Absentee-Shawnee Tribe 803 Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town 804 Apache Tribe of Oklahoma 806 Caddo Tribe 807 Cherokee Nation 808 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 813 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 815 Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation 816 Chickasaw Nation 818 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 822 Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma 824 Citizen Band Potawatomi 828 Comanche Tribe of Oklahoma 831 Creek (Muskogee) Nation 834 Delaware Reservation 837 Eastern Shawnee Reservation 838 Fort Sill Apache Tribe 840 Iowa Reservation 842 Kaw Tribe of Oklahoma 847 Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma 850 Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma 851 Miami Tribe of Oklahoma 852 Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma 853 Osage Reservation 854 Otoe-Missouri Reservation 858 Ottawa Tribe 859 Pawnee Tribe 861 Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma 863 Ponca Reservation 865 Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma 866 Sac and Fox Reservation 868 Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma 869 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma 871 Thlopthlocco Tribal Town 872 Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma 874 United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee 875 Western Delaware 877 Wichita Tribe 878 Wyandotte Reservation 880 OREGON Burns Paiute Reservation 883 Celilo Village 884 Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Indians 885 Coquille Indian Tribal Community 887 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 890 Cow Creek 892 Fort McDermitt (see Fort McDermitt, NV) Grand Ronde Reservation 893 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 897 Klamath Reservation 898 Siletz Reservation 901 Umatilla Reservation 904 Warm Springs Reservation 907 RHODE ISLAND Narrangansett Reservation 911 SOUTH CAROLINA Catawba Reservation 913 SOUTH DAKOTA Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation 915 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 919 Crow Creek Sioux Reservation 920 Flandreau Santee Sioux Reservation 922 Lake Traverse Reservation 924 Lower Brule Reservation 926 Pine Ridge Reservation 931 Rosebud Reservation 934 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 936 Standing Rock Reservation 937 Yankton Reservation 940 TEXAS Alabama-Coushatta Reservation 943 Kickapoo Reservation 945 Tigua (see Ysleta del Sur Pueblo, TX) Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (formerly Tigua) 947 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Page Page UTAH Goshute Reservation 949 Navajo Reservation (see Navajo, AZ) Paiute Reservation (Shivwits, Cedar City, and Kanosh Reservations) 951 Skull Valley Reservation 952 Uintah & Ouray Reservation 954 Ute Mountain (see Ute Mountain, CO) Washakie Indian Reservation (Northwestern Band of Shoshoni) 957 WASHINGTON Chehalis Reservation 959 Colville Reservation 961 Cowlitz 964 Hoh Reservation 965 Jamestown Reservation 966 Kalispel Reservation 969 Lower Elwha Reservation 971 Lummi Reservation 973 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 976 Makah Reservation 978 Muckleshoot Indian Reservation 981 Nisqually Reservation 983 Nooksack Reservation 984 Port Gamble Reservation 985 Port Madison Reservation 987 Puyallup Reservation 989 Honoring Nations Honoree 1999 992 Quileute Reservation 993 Quinault Reservation 996 Samish Indian Tribe 1000 Sauk-Suiattle Reservation 1001 Shoalwater Bay Reservation 1002 Skokomish Reservation 1003 Snoqualmie Tribe 1005 Spokane Reservation 1008 Squaxin Island Reservation 1011 Stillaguamish Reservation 1013 Swinomish Reservation 1015 Honoring Nations Honoree 2000 1018 Tulalip Reservation 1020 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 1023 Upper Skagit Reservation 1024 Yakama Reservation 1026 Honoring Nations Honoree 2002 1029 WISCONSIN Bad River Reservation 1031 Forest County Potawatomi Reservation 1033 Ho-Chunk Reservation 1035 Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Reservation 1038 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 1040 Lac du Flambeau Reservation 1042 Menominee Reservation 1046 Honoring Nations Honoree 2003 1049 Mole Lake Reservation 1051 Oneida Reservation 1053 Red Cliff Reservation 1057 St. Croix Chippewa Reservation 1059 Stockbridge-Munsee Reservation 1062 WYOMING Wind River Reservation 1065