Tiller's Guide to Indian Country - Second Edition

SPECIAL TRIBAL REVIEWERS/CONTRIBUTORS: (Listed by state and reservation name) CALIFORNIA Lee Acebedo, Bill Mesa, Darlene Suarez (Jamul) Stan Anderson (Tuolumne) Carol Bill (Cold Springs) Diana Chihuahua, (Torres Martinez), Franklin A. Dancy, (Morongo) John Elliot (Manzanita), Juana Majel-Dixon (Pauma), Will Micklin, (Ewaiiaayp), Jerry Paresa (San Manuel); COLORADOEdwina Silas, Troy Ralstin, (Ute Mountain Ute) Edna Frost, Chuck Farago, Jim Formea, (Southern Ute); MAINEAlberta Downing, Melvin Francis, Sr., (Pleasant Point), Russell Dennis, (Aroostock) Don Levasseur, (Houlton Maliseet), Roger Ritter, Robert Tyler, (Indian River Township) Craig Sanborn, Tim Walton, (Penobscot); MASSACHUSETTSBeverly Wright (Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head); MICHIGANGeorge Beck (Lac Vieux Desert), William Mrdeza (Saginaw), Sue Spriver, Reneé Robinson (Sault Ste. Marie), Glenn Zaring, Jonnie J. Sam II, Bill Brooks, (Little River Band); MINNESOTAReneé Gale, Victoria White (Leech Lake); MONTANATheresa Aragon (Crow), Caroline Brown, (Fort Belknap), Bob Gauthier (Flathead), Joe Gervais, (Blackfeet); NEBRASKARick Thomas (Santee Sioux); NEW MEXICOBernadine Garcia (Acoma), Sharon Hausam (Sandia) , Andrew Othole (Zuni), Thora Padilla (Mescalero Apache), Kenneth Pin (Santo Domingo), Governor Tom Talache, Jr. (Nambé); NEVADAAnita Collins (Walker River), Chuck Rosenow, (RenoSparks); OKLAHOMAMargaret Anquoe (Cheyenne-Arapahoe), Ron Barnett (Thlopthlocco Creek), Guy Munroe and Ron Feazle (Kaw Nation), Carla Norman (Seminole), Tony Salazar (Kickapoo), Tamara Summerfield (Quapaw), Pam Wall (Creek Nation) Jennifer Smith; OREGONKevin Craig (Coquille), Kim Rogers (Grand Ronde), Michael Rondeau (Cow Creek), Francis Somday (Coos Bay); SOUTH CAROLINAGilbert Blue (Catawba); SOUTH DAKOTASam Allen (Santee Sioux), Denelle High Elk, Deanna Lebeau, Narcisse Rousseau (Cheyenne River Sioux), Ben Janis, Scott Jones, Toni Rouillard Wells (Lower Brule), Angie Johnson (Sisseton-Wahpeton), Myrna Leader Charge (Rosebud); TEXASSylvia Garcia, Carlos Hisa, (Ysleta de Sur Pueblo) Sharon Miller (AlabamaCoushatta) Margie Salazar (Kickapoo); UTAHArmand Accuttroop, (Uintah-Ouray) Bruce Perry (Northwestern Band); WASHINGTONKen Stocks, Paul Wilson (Kalispel), David Ernst, John Otterson (Spokane) Linda Cawyer, Annette Nesse (Jamestown S'Klallam), Natalie Charley, Rich Wells, Max Stocks, (Quinault), Leonard Forsman (Suquamish), Larry Goodrow (Skokomish), Joan Koenig (Squaxin Island), Casey Stevens (Stillaguamish), Tracie Stevens (Tulalip), Curt Wolters (Lummi); WISCONSINRichardAckley, Jr. (Mole Lake), Richard Hartmann (St. Croix), Wayne Lindemans (Red Cliff ), Denise Palmer, (Stockbridge-Munsee), Bobbi Webster (Oneida). Tribal Personnel and Individuals: (Listed by state and reservation name) ALABAMASandra Hiebert (Poarch Creek); ARIZONACollette Altaha (FortApache), Trib Choudary (Navajo Nation), Helema Andrews (Salt River Pima-Maricopa), Carl Antone (Gila River), Sabrina Campbell (Tohono O'odham), Marilyn Celestine, Jerry C. Holland, Walt Nader, Richard Carons (Tonto Apache), Michele Crank (Fort McDowell), Jack Ehrhart (Hualapai), Brian Golding, Sr. (Fort Yuma), Evelyn James (San Juan), Lynnia Key (San Carlos), Lincoln Manataja, Linda Mahone, (Havasupai), Gary Goforth, Nora McDowell (Fort Mojave), Chris Moss (Yavapai-Prescott), Letticia Baltazar, Luci Ponticelli (Pascua Yaqui), Fred Shupla, Royce M. Jenkins, (Hopi), Bartholomew Smith (Ak-Chin), Ted Smith, Sr., (Camp Verde), Paul Soto (Cocopah), Greg Sprawls, Cindy Homer, Veronica Murdock, Herman Lasson, Orlando Short, Sr., (Colorado River), Gary Tom (Kaibab); CALIFORNIATodd G. Hooks (Agua Caliente), Eileen Anthony (Chemehuevi), Wanda Balderama, Don Ray, Valeria Stanley, (Hopland), Steve Baldy (Big Lagoon), Leslie Keig (Alturas) Michelle Berditschevsky and Brandy Gemmill (Big Bend, Likely, Lookout, Montgomery Creek), Dino Beltran (Lower Lake), Loren Bommelyn, Dorothy Perry (Smith River), Angie Bill, Thelma Bradford, Karen Flores (Cortina), Reyna Beasley (Viejas), Debra Breidenbach-Sterling, Karen Kupcha (Augustine), Lavina Brooks, Peggy O'Neil, Arnie Nova, Willard Carlson (Yurok), Raymond Brown, Cheryl Steele, Sandy Thomas (Elem), Terry Brown, Mark Macarro, Jody de la Torre (Pechanga), Pam Baumgartner, Silvia Burley (Valley Miwok Tribe, California), Raymond Torres (Torres Martinez), Judy Cleveland (Big Valley), Anthony Collins, Georgia Tucker (Sycuan), Brian Connolly (Campo), Nancy Conrad, David Martinez (Cabazon), Lorraine Dalamino, Andrew Moro (Pala), Louise Davis (Redding), Becky Day (Tuolumne), Michel DeMers (North Fork), Butch Denny (Santa Rosa), Mike Despain (Greenville), Richard Drake (Fort Independence), Evelyn Duro, (Los Coyotes) Doug Elmets (Rumsey), Doug Elmets (United Auburn), Trina Fitzgerral (Sherwood Valley), Kathy Frazier (Enterprise), Tilda Green (San Pasqual), Wanda Green, Ray Martel, Terri Camarena (Elk Valley), Manuel Hamilton (Ramona), Rich Hoffman (Jackson), Michael Holman (Potter Valley), Jaclyn Traversie, Danny Jordan, Will Hostler, (Hoopa Valley), Loren Joseph (Lone Pine), Leslie Keig (Montgomery Creek), Joe Kennedy (Timbisha Shoshone), Lavon Kent (Quartz Valley), Bruce Klein (Bishop), Ron Knight, Don Rich (Pinoleville), Diana L. Kosar (Robinson), Irvin Lent (Big Pine), Cheryl Bettega, Ronald Lincoln. Sr. (Round Valley), Tom Linton (Morongo), David Lockart (Chico), Latisha Miller, Leslie Loshe develop educational programs, expand land holdings, and support local charities, public school systems, law enforcement agencies, emergency services, and health care facilities among others. Gaming in Indian country has generated its stereotype as false as any of those that preceded it, that all Indian tribes and individuals are now awash in gaming dollars. Not all tribes even have gaming operations, and a number of them have declined offer after offer to join the parade of gaming tribes. Many of these tribes still depend on the more traditional enterprises such as agriculture, mining, manufacturing, information and technology, arts and crafts, forestry, fisheries, communications, and tourism and recreation. The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe owns and operates one of the first Indian-owned radio stations in the country. The Oneida Nation of Wisconsin owns and operates successful agricultural enterprises, as do a number of tribes in the Southwest. The Osage Tribe of Oklahoma has produced oil and gas from its 1.4 million-acre estate in Oklahoma for a century. The Mescalero Apache Tribe in New Mexico operates three popular recreation and ski resorts. A number of tribes operate various enterprises on tribally owned industrial parks. And others boast business centers, office complexes, and commercial shopping malls on tribal lands. Natural resources continue to provide the backbone of many tribal economies. With an annual allowable cut of more than one billion board feet on a sustained yield basis, forestry promises to sustain some tribal economies for generations to come. Hundreds of millions of tons of low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal underlie thousands of acres of Western reservation lands. Oil and gas resources continue to flow from Indian lands, even as much of the industry shifts its efforts to offshore and foreign prospects. Rights to precious water throughout the major river basins of the West are seen as increasingly valuable, not only for agriculture but also for municipal and industrial use. More and more tribes are concentrating on instream flow requirements to maintain fisheries, wildlife habitat, and environmental values. Tribes are increasingly taking control of these valuable resources from the federal agencies that have traditionally managed them. In Arizona, the Ak-Chin Indian Community has persevered to see implementation of the nearly thirty-year-old Ak-Chin Water Settlement Act of 1978. The Southern Ute Tribe stood virtually alone for as long to see ground broken on the Animas-La Plata Project, perhaps the last major water development project for the Bureau of Reclamation. In the northwest, tribes have secured water to preserve their treaty-protected fishing rights to anadromous fisheries. Many tribes are investing proceeds from their EDITOR’S FOREWORD VIII