Tiller’s Guide to Indian Country - Third Edition

XX How To Use This Reference Guide This referenceguideprofiles by state theeco- nomyofeveryfederallyrecognizedIndianreservation intheUnitedStates.Whereverpossible, thisGuide has relied upon information provided bytheIndiantribesregard-ingtheir landholdings; their culture and history; and their infrastructure and economic enterprises. This work is an updateofthe2005-2006editionof Tiller’sGuide to IndianCountry.That work is the singlemost consultedandauthoritative sourceof informationon the Indian tribes of the contiguous 48 states and Alaska.Thisguideincludesafewtribeswhohave not (as of 2012) established a tribal land base. CONTACTINFORMATION Theformatusedhere listsontheoutsidecolumn on the first line of each profile the name of the reservation (where one exists). The second line provides the status of the reservation. The third line identifies the name of the tribal group(s) occupying the reservation. The third line identifies the county or counties inwhich the reservations are located. The next section has the tribe’s address, telephone numbers and dedicated lines for facsimile transmissionor reception, followed by the tribe’s official web siteandor web site that provides information about the tribe. The user is cautioned to verify thesenumbers periodically. DEMOGRAPHICINFORMATION The next set of data displayed pertains to the extent of Indian landholdingson the reservation, anddemographicinformationregardingthetribe(s) onthereservation.Theinformationregardingland holdingswas taken fromeither theU.S. Bureau of IndianAffairs statistics, or fromthe tribes themselves.Thedemographicdataweretakenmostly from the 2010 Decennial Report of the United States Bureau of the Census or from the 2013 and 2014 NAHASDA data for tribal population and tribal enrollment figures, exceptwhere a Tribe offered more current or more accurate information. The figures can vary and this guide provides the informationandmakesnoclaims to its absolute accuracy. LOCATIONAND LAND STATUS The section on Location and Land Status situates each reservation geographically within the State. This section also describes such anomalies as non-contiguous reservation tracts and recently acquired lands, whichmay or may not (in 2012) haveacquired reservation status. If all the land tenures describeddonot addup to the total reservation area, it is not necessarily amistake. Tribes throughout the length and breadth of the country are disputing their jurisdictional areas, their off- reservation treaty-protectedareas, and evenownershipoflargetractsofland.Forinstance, surveying errors of the 19th Century are still being corrected by theCongress and the courts of theUnitedStates in the late 20thCentury. Thus, the brief history of the reservation lands in this section intimates no opinion regarding the ultimate resolution of such disputes, but describes the generally accepted view of the extent of Indian landholdingsassociatedwitheach reservation. For states such as Alaska and California with peculiarly complex histories, supplemental information is provided as an aid to the user. CULTUREANDHISTORY Great effortsweremade to enableTribes to providetheirowninformationregardingtheseaspects of their Tribal profiles. This section includes information on broad ethno histories, historic linguistic groupings, and historic geographic ranges of the Tribe(s) occupying the present reservation. Here, too, special introductions onAlaska, California, Flordia, Maine, andNewYork have been included to avoid repetition of large numbers of similar histories. GOVERNMENT This section describes briefly the method by which theTribe(s)of each reservation presently govern themselves, and their territories. Many Tribesprovidedfarmoredetailedinformationthan could be accommodated in a brief profile. For this edition, more detailed information on tribal departments have been added, as well as information on tribal business corporations. ECONOMY The economy of each reservation is described briefly,includinginformationregardingagricultural andlivestock,forestry,fisheries,gaming,construction,mining, industrial parks,manufacturing, services and retail, and tourism and recreational activity. New categories including finance/banking, insurance,mediaandcommunications, real estate and commercial development, and telecommunications, were added to accommodate economicsectorsthatwereeithernotpartoftribal economies or have become viable part of tribal economies since the2006 editionwas issued. INFRASTRUCTUREANDCOMMUNITY FACILITIES Thesesectionsdescribetransportation,utility,and delivery services available to each reservation. Community facilities, including tribal governmental facilities, public meeting, recreational, and housing facilities are included. The sections on education and health were also given more attention in this edition. MAPS There are 23 State maps included in this volume. Of the 23, the only tribal map in this volume is for the Navajo Reservation. The Choctaw of Mississippi has a locator map that points to where their reservation is located within the state of Mississippi.