Tiller’s Guide to Indian Country - Third Edition

389 Coeur d’Alene Coeur d’Alene Reservation Federal reservation Coeur d’Alene Benewah and Kootenai counties, Idaho Coeur d’Alene Tribal Council 850 A Street. P.O. Box 408 Plummer, ID 83851 208-686-1800 208-686-1182 Fax www.cdatribe-nsn.gov [See Map for Location] Total area (BIA realty, 2004) 74,693 acres Total area (Tribal source, 2004) 344,900 acres Trust lands (Tribal source, 2004) 36,370 acres Tribally owned (BIA realty, 2004) 30,559 acres Tribally owned (Tribal source, 2004) 14,310 acres Allotted lands (Tribal source, 2004) 22,060 acres Individually owned (BIA realty, 2004) 44,134 acres Population (2000 census) 6,551 Tribal enrollment (Tribal source, 2004) 1,907 Duck Valley Reservation See NV Coeur d’Alene ing their encounter with French trappers. Their populations were decimated by the arrival of smallpox, measles, and other European diseases that came with Euro- American encroachment on tribal lands. Records indicate that in the late eighteenth century there were as many as 5,000 members of the Coeur d’Alene bands. In 1905, less than 200 years later, the population was recorded as only 490. An executive order establishing the reservation was issued in 1873. In 1887 the tribe ceded nearly 3,500,000 acres in Washington, Idaho, and Montana to the U.S. government. Several thousand more acres were ceded in 1889 and 1894. Tribal lands were reduced from almost 4,000,000 acres to 345,000 acres. Under the Homestead Act of 1909, over 80 percent of the reservation passed out of tribal ownership. Specifically, they lost ownership of most of the land along Lake Coeur d’Alene through allotment and the opening of the reservation to non-Native settlers beginning that year. Moreover, the effects of the Homestead Act were of gradual social, cultural, and economic degradation. Loss of their land base jeopardized tribal identity through forced acculturation, which in turn opened the door to many social problems. In response to this tragic downward spiral, the tribe filed a claimwith the Indian Claims Commission on November 15, 1950, for compensation for the illegal confiscation of their traditional homelands. On May 6, 1958, the Commission awarded the tribe $4,342,778 in settlement of this claim. The tribe has subsequently pursued other claims and litigation, generally successfully. The proceeds from these awards were used for economic development projects which in turn have generated more revenue, ultimately to be applied toward the general welfare of tribal members. Throughout the first two decades of the 21st century, the tribe has been seeking to rebuild their land base utilizing buy-backs from private landowners and direct transfers of title of any federal public lands now held by the federal government in lieu of it passing to the state of Idaho whereby it could be opened to development or minerals exploitation.Tribal leaders cite treaty rights guaranteeing off-reservation fishing and hunting rights on “unoccupied lands of the United States” as justification for their claims. In 2014 the tribe planned to utilize their portion of the Cobell Settlement, an award exceeding $4 million, for additional purchases of land, especially those parcels with “fractionalized ownership,” where alleged ownership may exist between multiple owners and previous landholders dating back to 1887 and the General AllotmentAct. LOCATION AND LAND STATUS The Coeur d’Alene Indian Reservation is located in the Idaho panhandle, about 40 miles southwest of Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. Spokane, Washington, lies 40 miles to the west. Principal settlements on the reservation include Benewah, De Smet, Plummer, and Tensed. Over 247,000 acres within the Coeur d’Alene Reservation are privately owned. The State of Idaho owns 12,640 acres, mostly in Heyburn State Park, which is situated at the south end of Lake Coeur d’Alene. The U.S. Forest Service owns 570 acres administered by Idaho Panhandle National Forests. The reservation was officially established by an Executive Order in 1873 that included almost 4,000,000 acres of the tribe’s traditional territory, but it was reduced to its present size through treaties, forced sales, and the allotment process. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION Reservation lands range from 2,200 to 2,600 feet above sea level. Mountain peaks rise to between 4,000 and 5,500 feet. The area consists of rolling hills and evergreen timber, as well as wetlands and rangelands. Lake Coeur d’Alene, the region’s major body of water, and Black Lake are located in the southern regions of the reservation. Several creeks and mountains are located in the northern quarter. The St. Joe River and St. Maries River flow through the reservation. CLIMATE The average summer temperature is 65ºF. The average winter temperature is 31.2ºF. Average annual precipitation is 10 inches, with over 59 inches of snowfall. CULTUREAND HISTORY The Schitsu’umsh, “those who are found here,” originated in the regions of present-day northwestern United States. The tribe is comprised of three family bands. One band is comprised of those families living along and near the Coeur d’Alene River; the second, those living alongtheSt.JoeRiver,andanotherconsistsofthefamilies living near Hayden Lake, Coeur d’Alene Lake, and Spokane River. Their ancestral lands encompassed nearly 5,000,000 acres in what are now Idaho, Washington, and Montana. They traditionally hunted buffalo on the Montana plains, fished for salmon at Spokane Falls, and dug for yams and other wild root crops near Kalispel and present-day Palouse. Tribal members utilized ancient trade routes between their homelands and those of other indigenous groups, including the Nez Perce, Shoshone, and Bannock. They traveled as far west as the Pacific coast. The Schitsu’umsh became known as the Coeur d’Alene, “Heart of the Awl,” follow- Courtesy of National Park Service