Tiller’s Guide to Indian Country - Third Edition

TILLER’SGUIDE Economic Profiles of American Indian Reservations Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, PhD. Foreword by LaDonna Harris To Indian Country THIRD EDITION

I TILLER’S GUIDE To Indian Country

II ©2015 by Veronica E. Velarde Tiller All rights reserved, Published in 2015 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. Tiller’s guide to Indian country : economic profiles of American Indian reservations / edited and compiled by Veronica E. Velarde Tiller. —Third edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-885931-06-1 (alk. paper) 1. Indian reservations—Economic aspects—United States—Directories. 2. Indians of NorthAmerica—Economic conditions—Directories. 3. Indian business enterprises—United States—Directories. I. Title. II. Title: Guide to Indian country. III. Title: Economic profiles of American Indian reservations. E93.T55 2015 330.9730089’97—dc23 2015022289 Cover Design and Book Layout Design by Mary M. Velarde Cover Photographs Courtesy of: Jicarilla Apache Nation Fish & Wildlife, James Jay, Gila River, Jonathan Tsosie, Navajo, Veronica E. Tiller, Reba June Serafin, and Sheldon Nunez-Velarde, JicarillaApache

III TILLER’S GUIDE To Indian Country Economic Profiles of American Indian Reservations Edited and Compiled by VERONICA E. VELARDE TILLER Featuring profiles for select private firms and companies, tribal enterprises, and non-profit organizations who have contributed to Indian Country’s economic development BowArrow Publishing Company: A Division of Tiller Research, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico USA

IV It has now been more than fifty years since President Lyndon Johnson appointed me to the National Council on Indian Opportunity. In that capacity my colleagues and I traveled from coast to coast, visiting Indian communities in the nation’s largest cities and on the most isolated reservations. The wounds were then still fresh from the twin federal policies of “Relocation” and “Termination.” Most Americans alive today will be incredulous to hear that after World War II their federal government openly embraced policies of “terminating” successful tribal economies by repudiating treaty and other obligations, and devastated Indian families and created urban ghettos by “relocating” Indian breadwinners and their families from their reservation homes and moving them to major cities from Boston to Los Angeles. Veronica Tiller has recognized one of the great untold American success stories of the late 20th Century in the emergence from that climate of Relocation and Termination of the thriving tribal economies chronicled here in this 3d edition of her groundbreaking work. Those of us who have had even a minor role in this story admire Dr. Tiller for her insight and for the incredible effort Tiller’s Guide represents. She and her team have witnessed first-hand the local, regional, and national ripple effects of the tribal economies recorded here. The advisory board to President Bill Clinton’s Initiative on Race advised him in a 1998 report that few Americans have an opportunity to learn about the indigenous peoples of America, and that “little, if any, correct information about tribal governments is taught in most schools.” Veronica Tiller has virtually single-handedly stepped forth to provide material to fill that gap in curriculum materials for virtually every corner of America. It should be a task we all embrace to see that Tiller’s Guide to Indian Country is available to every federal agency office in the country, and that it finds a place in the libraries of every school, college, and community in the nation. All of us, native and non-Native alike, should take pride in the tribal communities and economies described here because they represent what can happen when this country is willing to recognize mistakes, reverse course, and allow the human spirit in each of us to flourish. To date, no other country in the world can present a similar story of the survival, perseverance, and ultimate success of its indigenous peoples such as is put forth here with such rich background and in such stunning detail. This Comanche woman thinks this nation in particular, and perhaps the world in general, owes a deep debt of gratitude to Dr. Veronica Tiller for this scholarly contribution to an understanding of the true role of Indian tribes in Twenty-First Century America. It is my hope that governments throughout the world can learn from our failures and our successes to realize the benefits they, too, might enjoy from appreciating the wisdom, the strength, and the “medicine” of their own indigenous peoples. LaDonna Harris President Emeritus Americans for Indian Opportunity Foreword By LaDonna Harris

V Preface My Foreword to the 2d edition of this work ten years ago noted significant changes since the first publication in 1996. This 3d edition marks another ten-year period of equally significant changes in the picture of American Indian tribal economies. Some of these changes reflect national trends, and in others tribes have been trend-setters for their reservations and even for their regional economies. Three sectors continue to be mainstays of tribal economies: gaming, tourism, and natural resources. Income and earnings from these three sectors are the primary sources of investment in and development of tribal economies. These three sectors also provide tribal governments with the greatest amount of employment for their people. While the federal government laments a crumbling national infrastructure, many tribes have invested in theirs, building community centers, housing, medical facilities, elder care residences, and modern recreational centers. In 2006 the majority of Indian students were attending public schools on or near their reservations, but today many tribes have taken over their school systems and fund their own cultural and language preservation programs. Many of these tribal facilities have been designed by American Indian architects and built by Indian-owned construction companies. Tribes have done more with their own resources to build modern economies in two generations than was accomplished in a century of federal control of their resources and their funds. Investments in Regional and National Economies The Seneca Nation has invested more than $1 billion in the economy of western New York, in the process salvaging a failed urban renewal project in downtown Buffalo and restoring riverfront “brownfield” properties to attractive and productive use. Having purchased a private game ranch from bankruptcy, the Jicarilla Apache Nation today owns and operates a world- class, big game enterprise, drawing visitors from around the world to the Chama Lodge in the mountains of northern New Mexico. After operating a Hard Rock hotel and casino on their reservation for years, the Seminole Tribe of Florida acquired the brand with the purchase of some 65 Hard Rock cafes and hotels throughout the country in one of the largest hotel acquisitions in the country in 2006. The Southern Ute Tribe of Colorado has financed commercial properties in downtown Denver and invested in offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Practicing sustained forestry techniques, the Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin harvests some 30 million board-feet of timber annually while increasing the volume of standing timber and preserving environmental and wildlife values. Changes in Gaming Industry Another trend noted in my introduction to the 2005 edition of this work was the then-uninterrupted, straight-line, almost exponential growth of gaming operations and revenues on Indian lands. That, too, has changed dramatically over the last ten years. Overall revenues from gaming on Indian lands have, with the single exception of 2009, continued to rise although the rate of growth has slowed dramatically. Whether due to market saturation, a general decline in disposable income following the recent Great Recession, or other reasons, Indian gaming revenue has continued to rise, albeit at a much slower rate, and totaled some $28.3 billion in 2013. Revenues from gaming operations continue to provide the basis of expansion, diversification, and growth of many tribal economies. Even the Osage Nation, which has produced oil and gas from its 1.4 million-acre mineral reserve in Oklahoma for more than 100 years, insisted for this 3d edition of Tiller’s Guide that its economy now rests primarily on gaming revenues, and not oil and gas income. The state of New York has experienced the sharpest, post-recession decline in gaming revenue growth for tribes, but even there the Seneca Nation of western New York plans to continue “growing the pie” by expanding the number of venues and diversifying the level and range of entertainment options by expanding the market in the face of the prospect of three new non-Indian mega-casino resorts in upstate New York. The most dramatic change in the gaming sector in coming years is likely to be the rise of online gaming that will increasingly be available as more and more states open their markets to this form of gaming which has been largely illegal in the U.S. since passage of the Unlawful Internet Gaming Enforcement Act of 2006. As of this publication, no state with Indian gaming has acted to authorize or legalize online gaming. Tribes, however, seem to be increasingly interested in expanding their gaming opportunities to this market which appears to represent a different demographic than the visitors to their casinos and resorts. To date, only Nevada, Delaware, and New Jersey permit online gaming within their borders. Consequently, no tribe can presently enter into a compact for casino-style online gaming with its own state. California is considering legislation to authorize online gaming, and several tribes in that state have expressed support for the initiative, although they differ widely on support for the various legislative proposals pending in the spring of 2015. Although the established gaming industry generally vigorously opposed online gaming for years as a threat to their investments in “brick and mortar” facilities, the point is not lost on gaming tribes that of the first three states to legalize online gaming two of them are Nevada and New Jersey. Online gaming appears to be on the horizon, and gaming tribes are preparing to be early participants. Tourism The development of tourism on Indian reservations began many decades ago and today it has grown even larger in part due to the availability of gaming revenues. Gaming and tourism go almost hand in hand on many reservations and in Indian communities. Gaming facilities are deliberately located close to recreational areas for fishing, boating, hiking, golf courses, museums, cultural centers, and other entertainment facilities. Gaming centers are also built around retail services that support tourism such as travel centers, convenience stores, hotels, restaurants, resorts, and gift shops. Tribal tourism has thrived for many tribes with large reservations that are close to national parks and recreation areas, such as those in New Mexico, Arizona, Montana, and Washing- ton.The Hualapai Tribe, for example has enhanced its tourism program to by developing a Sky-Walk over majestic views into the Grand Canyon, and by offering river rafting on theColo- rado River through the reservation.Tourism has been a major source of livelihood for many Navajo families for generations. Tourism is a principal driver of the economies of New Mexico By Veronica E. Velarde Tiller

VI and Oklahoma, and the tourism industry of those states rests largely on the presence of Indian tribes within their borders. The Natural Resources Sector Natural resources continue to provide the backbone of many tribal economies. Although tribes throughout the country own abundant quantities of natural resources, for the most part these tribal resource owners still do not benefit directly from the value added to the raw materials produced from their lands. Oil and gas, coal, sand and gravel, agricultural crops, and raw seafood are produced as raw products on Indian lands and manufactured into commercial, salable products by non-Indian enterprises. Very notable and somewhat singular exceptions are the commercial timber enterprises operated by tribes from the Olympic Peninsula to the Great Lakes and throughout the timbered mountains of the Southwest. Increasingly, however, as tribes embrace the principle of sustainability in developing their economies, they seem to be turning more and more to retaining control of the entire production cycle of their resources. Private operators have mined forests, overgrazed grasslands, and have over-harvested such natural food sources as game animals, wild rice, shellfish beds, and salmon runs. Tribes are increasingly making investments in sustainable practices in managing their own agriculture, timber, grazing, and game and fisheries resources. Although the means and tools are different, the fight to protect and preserve the land and its life-sustaining waters is waged by tribes today as fiercely as their forefathers fought to preserve what remains to them. Developing modern economies is increasingly seen as the most promising way to preserve their ancient cultures, languages, and ways of life. Water Rights Settlements A significant change I noted in introducing the 2d edition ten years ago was the number of tribes that were entering into water rights settlements to firm up and quantify their rights to precious and increasingly scarce water to support their economies and to ensure the permanent viability of their homelands. The first half of the year 2015 has brought both historically unprecedented rainfall throughout the southern plains and what may prove to be a 1,000-year drought for California and much of the Southwest. Through flood and drought, in the past ten years, Congress has continued to approve Indian water rights settlements for tribes throughout the country. The Soboba Band of California has achieved a settlement of its rights to waters of the San Jacinto River basin. The Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation have settled their claims to waters arising on the reservation and to the Owyhee River. Congress approved a settlement providing 600,000 acre-feet of water and some $461 million for water facilities on the Crow Reservation in Montana. The White Mountain Tribe of Arizona achieved a settlement that provides a 19th Century priority date for significant rights to water from the Salt River, plus $126 million for infrastructure development including a 60-mile pipeline to provide drinking water throughout the reservation. In New Mexico the Nambe, Pojoaque, Tesuque, and San Ildefonso Pueblos concluded more than 40 years of litigation with a settlement of their water rights claims and construction of a regional water system to serve both Indian and non-Indian communities. The Taos Pueblo of New Mexico achieved a separate settlement that provides the Pueblo with an aboriginal (pre- dating European contact) priority date to water from an existing federal project. Finally, Congress approved a settlement that provides the Navajo Nation with rights to serve the western portion of the Navajo Reservation with water from existing federal projects. As this 3d edition goes to press, Congress is considering additional water rights settlements. All these water rights settlements of the last ten years are much more detailed and complicated than indicated in the above cursory descriptions of them here. Each of them provides a measure of certainty both to the tribes and their non- Indian neighbors regarding sources and quantities of water available for present and future development. Some of them provide authority for the tribes to market water that is surplus to their current needs, which is another growing trend throughout the western United States. Significantly, the dollar amounts associated with these settlements provide a measure of the previously unrecognized economic value of tribal water rights. Changes in oil and gas industry In 2005, I noted that while oil and gas production continued on Indian lands, the industry had largely shifted its efforts to more promising and more exciting prospects offshore and in foreign countries. In 2006, however, Congress exempted the process of hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) from regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act and precipitated a domestic “oil boom” that has been reminiscent of Gold Rush days in California and Alaska. Ten years ago, communities on both coasts and the Gulf of Mexico were looking to site terminals for importing liquefied natural gas to meet increasing U.S. demand and decreasing domestic supplies. Today, due to the drilling boom utilizing fracking technology, the U.S. boasts a 100-year supply of natural gas and ranks first in the world among countries producing crude oil. From the sprawling Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota; throughout the Ute, Apache, and Navajo lands of the Four Corners region; and from Oklahoma to the Gulf Coast Indian tribes have benefited from this latest boom time in the oil and gas fields. Green Economy and Renewable Energy A further significant change in tribal economies over the last ten years has been the extent to which tribes throughout the country have embraced the green economy. From the Yukon to San Diego County tribes have invested in forms of renewable energy on scales from residential to industrial. The Campo Kumeyaay Nation (formerly Campo Band of Mission Indians) on the Mexican border of California was the first tribe in the country to install an industrial scale wind energy farm that produces enough energy for 30,000 homes a year. The Gwithyaa Zhee Gwich’in Tribal Government of Fort Yukon, Alaska is installing a solar system to reduce its annual fuel oil costs by 50 per cent. Tribes from New York to Oregon have built, acquired, or assumed licenses for hydroelectric plants.The Moapa Paiute Tribe of Nevada is constructing an industrial scale solar plant to provide 200 megawatts of power to southern California. The Jemez Pueblo is exploring the prospect of developing commercial scale geothermal power in the Valles Caldera region of the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Resistance from established investor-owned utilities to the development of renewable energy appears to be giving way to cooperative enterprises with tribes throughout the country. Development as a two-sided coin The monumental change in the magnitude and scope of tribal economies over the past ten years has not been an unalloyed blessing. The oil and gas boom resulting from hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has been accompanied by all the vices proverbially associated with the gold rush frenzies of the 19th and 20th Centuries. The distribution of wealth from development has been uneven. Where reservaPreface

VII tion lands are individually owned, not all landowners profit equally or even similarly. Location, location, location appears to be the rule in Indian country as elsewhere. Community and family dysfunction appear to accompany rapid and unplanned change in circumstances. A Note about non-Tribal profies in this 3rd edition. Finally, I want to offer a note of explanation regarding the non-Tribal profiles in this edition. Preface The economic progress and development of tribal economies told through these tribal profiles would not have been possible without the help, counsel, guidance, and wisdom of a very great many non-Tribal individuals, firms, and organizations. Those few profiled here have been carefully selected for their outsized contributions to economic development in Indian country over the past decades, whether from their precedent-setting legal cases, the magnitude of recoveries they have achieved, the significance of their of role in regional economies, and in all cases for their contributions to economic and business development for Indian tribes and Indian people .Their inclusion here reflects, among other things, my personal admiration and gratitude to them for their contributions to Indian country progress and to the publication of this 3rd edition. Veronica E. Tiller Jicarilla Apache Acknowledgements A work of this magnitude would not be pos- sible without the support of a virtual army of writers, researchers, editors, proofreaders, a graphic designer, an indexer, and other members of the Tiller Research project team. I cannot possibly thank everyone who has contributed in one way or another to this 2014-2015 edition of Tiller's Guide, but our lead researchers and writers were Brian Ramirez, Tammy Moon, Christina Harrison, and Cass W. IV Walters. We received valuable assistance with the California profiles from Deanah Watson, Michael Land- kammer, and Susan Peone. Caroline Laurent assisted us with the Minnesota tribal profiles, and Liana S. Hesler lent a valuable hand with the Oklahoma profiles.Stacey Sanchez assistedwith New Mexico. We owe a special debt of gratitude to Tammy Moon, who also served as our technical editor for the entire manuscript. Her keen eye, analytical skills, and her research and writing abilities have been invaluable. We are especially grateful, too, to Christina V. Harrison for deciphering, managing, and compiling the U.S. Census data for all the tribes in the 33 states where they are located. Mary M. Velarde created all the graphics including the cover design, and was infinitely patient in accommodating the rewrites, revisions, corrections, repaginations, and second thoughts as she prepared the actual manuscript for shipment to the printer. Her creativity and technical skills are evident in her page layout throughout this work. Mary Harper of Access Points Indexing of Oregon provided the index. Roberta Serafin provided important management of financial records. Glenda Archuleta drew on her bottomless well of good will developed from decades of working with tribes throughout the coun try and deserves credit for bringing in most of the tribal profiles. Ganelle Benallie provided valuable records management services in the early stages of this project. Emily (Emmie) Frederiks made important contributions to earlier editions of this work, and her contributions are still visible throughout this 3rd edition. In addition to these individuals, Richard Linfield, Leilani Darling, Michael Chapman, Jennifer Gerard, Patricia Gerard, and Teresa Hicks all contributed at various stages to the collection of this data and to plan for its dissemination. Other individuals who have provided valuable insights, assistance, and support in ways large and small throughout this project include Margo Hill, Jacqueline Croteau, Kay Bills, Travis Suazo, Jennifer Muskrat, Harlan McKosato, Susan Masten, Jim Gray, and Tom Teegarten. Tiller's Guide to Indian Country would not be a premiere reference work without the cooperation, kindness, hospitality, and contributions of the people of Indian Country. The following individuals all made a special effort by reviewing our draft profiles and sometimes even rewriting sections of the profiles. Throughout the country we received help from tribal employees representing various departments of their tribes, including executive, economic development, public relations, tribal administration, cultural preservation, libraries, environmental protection, business corporations, and from tribal consultants, all of whom care about their tribes and their people and want the general public to have accurate information about Indian Country. We express our gratitude to Trib Choudary for assisting us with navigation of the 2010 US Census data, and Don Motanic of the Intertribal Timber Council, for sending us the 2013 Forestry Reports for all the Indian tribes. We thank the BIA Realty Offices from throughout the United States who provided us with the Indian land acreage reports for tribes in their jurisdictions. Lynn Glascoe and Schamell Padgett of the CIP Program at the Library of Congress helped us navigate the new technical rules of bringing a copyrighted work to press. I am especially grateful to Michael A. Corfman of Casino City Press of Newton, Massachusetts, who has again allowed us access to his database from which we received the latest information on Indian gaming statistics. We are especially thankful to Dick C. Winchell for providing us with the 2013 and 2014 NAHASDA data compilations for updated tribal populations and tribal enrollment figures. A sincere thanks goes to the Cherie Tayaba and the All Indian Pueblo Council for giving me the forum to obtain permission from the 19 New Mexico Pueblo Governors to work with their tribes. I offer my special thank you for their cooperation and help to the following New Mexico Pueblo Governors: E. Paul Torres (Isleta), Joshua Madalena (Jemez), Richard Luarkie (Laguna), Richard Mermejo (Picuris), George Rivera (Pojaoque), andGeorgeM. Montoya (SantaAna), J. Michael Chavarria (Santa Clara), Robert Mora (Tesuque) andArlen Quetawki, Sr. (Zuni). Leon Reval, Jicarilla Apache Legislative Council member, made it possible for me to request the help of all the Apache tribal leaders at their Apache Summit in updating their profiles. Leigh Bitsitty of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada arranged for my meeting with her organization. Pei- Chen Chang and Robert Smith arranged for me to meet with the Southern California Tribal Chairmen'sAssociation.

VIII Acknowledgements (cont’d) special gratitude for their contribution. In particular, David Sloan of Sloan Architects of Albuquerque and David Garce of GBSBArchitects of Salt Lake City were instrumental in making that profile possible. No list of influential non-profits in Indian country would be complete without two that have set the standard for more than 40 year -- Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO), and the NativeAmerican Rights Fund (NARF). These two organizations are known, respected, admired, and admired far beyond Indian Country, in the halls of Congress, throughout the Executive reaches of government, in boardrooms, courtrooms, and tribal council chambers from one end of the country to the other. I count it an honor an d a privilege to have enjoyed the friendship and support of these organizations and their leadership, as well as their unflagging support for Tiller's Guide. I thank John Echohawk, Donald Ragona, and Morgan O'Brien of NARF for their help. My heartfelt gratitude goes to LaDonna Harris, my dear friend , founder ofAIO, and 'Grand Lady for All Seasons' in Indian Country for the Foreword to this edition, and for her consistent and long-standing support of Tiller's Guide. Laura Harris, executive director of AIO has my thanks for always giving and sharing her support. One individual who stands in a category by herself for her generosity and support is Patricia Parker, (Choctaw fromOklahoma) of Reston Virginia, a successful business woman who simply finds ways to help NativeAmericans in business. I will never forget her graciousness and confidence in me. Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, Ph.D. (Jicarilla Apache) Editor & Compiler Tiller Research, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico Tiller's Guide is well illustrated with photographs because of the generosity and good will of various individuals, Indian tribes, non-profit organizations, and private companies. I greatly appreciation their generous consent for the use of these photographs, and these contributors are credited throughout the text with their works. There is a special group of supporters that I owe my utmost gratitude. Without the financial support of their companies and non-profit organizations, this 3rd edition of Tiller's Guide would not have been possible. The original idea for off- setting the cost of publication was given to me by Frank Sims, my friend and general manager of my tribe's The Lodge at Chama. When invitations went out to select firms and enterprises who have either made or are making a major contribution to Indian Country's economic development, one of Indian country's leading lawyers, Charles A. Hobbs of the Hobbs, Straus, Dean & Walker law firm was the first to lend the prestige of his name and his firm to our efforts. Dan Rey- Bear, Deidre Lujan, Thomas Peckham, and Donald H. Grove of the Nordhaus Law Firm are individuals I admire for their legal work in behalf of my tribe, the Jicarilla Apache Nation, and I cannot thank them enough for their contributions. Three other Washington, D.C.- based law firms accepted our invitation to showcase their contributions to Indian Country here. I am grateful to Ezra Crawford, Public Relations Manager at BuckleySandler for providing his firm's profile. Our long-time and good friend Paul Moorehead provided the profile for his firm of Powers Pyles, Sutter & Verville. I was especially pleased that my Osage sister Elizabeth Homer agreed to allow us to feature her firm, Homer Law, Chartered as well. These firms deserve an enormous amount of credit for the economic success stories profiled throughout this book. Since this book is devoted to profiling the economies of Indian reservations throughout the country, I am particularly pleased as well to profile a few of the tribal enterprises that are shaping those economies. I am grateful to Michael Chapman for bringing us the profile of his tribe's Menominee Tribal Enterprises. Cherie Gordon of the Burlington Northern-Santa Fe Railway has been extremely supportive and helpful with suggestions from her business background we well as for the profile of her company's work with the tribes on the Fort Peck reservation. Fred Vigil, CEO of the Jicarilla Apache Energy Company (JAECO), was very gracious in providing a profile of our own tribe's venture into the entrepreneurial world of oil and gas production. RonAllen, long-time chairman of the Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe, has been a long-time supporter and champion of Tiller's Guide. I am particularly grateful to him for his national leadership in Indian Country and to Ann Sargent and Bette Oppenheimer at Jamestown S'Klallam for sharing their success story here. The NOVA Corporation, a wholly owned enterprise of the Navajo Nation, is also profiled here thanks to the assistance and cooperation of Senior Vice President Clara Pratt and Marketing Director Oscencio Tom. Finally, I am thoroughly pleased to have the opportunity to profile here a slice of the non-profit sector of Indian Country that has made monumental and lasting contribution over their many decades of service to Indian Country. Ted Pedro, Director, and Russell Pedro, economic specialist at theAmerican Indian Chamber of Commerce of New Mexico have a special place in my line- up of contributors with their pledge of publicity and networking opportunities. My appreciation goes out to them. A special group of entrepreneurs, who make up the American Indian Council ofArchitects and Engineers, (AICAE) have my

IX Tribal Reviewers/Contributors List LOUISIANA Telah Robison, (Chitimacha) KimWalden,(Chitimacha) David Sickey, (Coushatta) Babette C. Bordelon, (Tunica-Biloxi) MAINE John Jouette, (Aroostook) Brian Reynolds, (Maliseets) Eric Nocolar, (Penobscot) MASSACHUSETTS Tobias Vanderhoop, (Wamponoag Gay Head) VictoriaWright, (Wamponoag Gay Head) BettinaWashington, (Wamponoag Gay Head) MICHIGAN Tina Durant, (L'Anse) Peggy Loonsfoot, (L'Anse) Angie Pigeon, (Match E-Be-Nash-she-wish) DaveAnthony, (Match E-Be-Nash-she-wish) Marcella L. Hadden, (Isabella) MINNESOTA Helen Wilkie, (Bois Forte) David Morrison, (Bois Forte) Curt Kalk, (Leech Lake) Joe Nayquonabe, (Leech Lake) Ryan White, (Leech Lake) Cindy Taube, (Prairie Island) Harvey Roy, (Red Lake) Trisha Nissen, (Shakopee) Willie Hardacker, (Shakopee) Michael Neusser, (White Earth) MISSISSIPPI Misty B. Dreifuss (Choctaw) MONTANA Jodi Running Fisher, (Blackfeet) Cheryl Reevis, (Blackfeet) Ruth Swaney (Flathead) Steve Small, (Northern Cheyenne) Joanlyn Mitchell, (Rocky Boy) NEVADA Dennis Smith, (Duck Valley) Virginia Sanchez, (Duckwater Shoshone) Jennifer Saunders, (Elko Band) Gerald Temoke, (Elko Band) Sandra Barela (Ely) Len George, (Fallon) Lori Williams, (Fallon) Trudy Ferber, (Las Vegas Paiute) Benny Tso, Chairman, (Las Vegas Paiute) Phil Swain, (Moapa) Darren Daboda, (Moapa) Aletha Tom, (Moapa), GregoryAnderson (Moapa) Arlan D. Melendez, (Reno Sparks) Stacey Montooth, (Reno Sparks) FrancesWinn, (Summit Lake) Phaline Conklin, (Te-Moak) Carl Johnson, (Walker River) Christine Potts, (Walker River) ALABAMA Sharon Delmar (Poarch Creek) ALASKACORPORATIONS Angela Bourdukofsky, (Aleut) Imafana Tuimaliifano, (Ahtna) Matt Gamley, (Bering Straits) Marlis Luke, (Calista) Randi Jo Grause, (Chugach) Brianna R. Cannon, (Chugach) Jason Moore (Cook Inlet) Josie E. Heyano, (Cook Inlet) Aaron Schulle, (Cook Inlet) Charlene Ostbloom, (Doyon) Dawn Kewan, (Koniag) Laura Orenga, (Koniag) Shelly Wozniak, (Koniag) Laura Kayuqtuq de Gattory, (NANA Corporation) Dixie Hutchinson, (Sealaska) ARIZONA Lisa Garcia, (Ak-Chin) Jerry Owen, (Ak-Chin) Arnold Danford, (FortApache) Brenda Roberts, (FortApache) Gary Cantrell, (FortApache) Deena Domingo, (Gila River) Damascus Francisco, (Gila River) Gina Goodman, (Gila River) Andra Gutierrez, (Gila River) Adeline Koyayesva, (Gila River) Jim Larney, (Gila River) Dennis Smith, (Gila River) Lee Miguel, Jr., (Gila River) Claudette “Ann” Torres, (Gila River) Derek White, (Gila River) Buddy Rocha, (Camp Verde) David E. Lewis, (Camp Verde) Waylon Honga, (Hualapai) Clifford BQotsaquahu, (Hopi) Carmen Bradley(Kaibab) Austin Nunez, (Tohono O'Odam) Iris Jones, (Salt River) Lisa Fulwilder, (Salt River) Margaret Cook, (Yavapai-Prescott) CALIFORNIA KateAnderson, (Agua Caliente) Mark Dansby, (Agua Caliente) Dan Malcolm, (Agua Caliente) BillAnderson, (Augustine) Chris Booth, (Auburn) Ben Ray, (Big Valley) Jana Ganion, (Blue Lake) Justin Nalder, (Bridgeport/Blue Lake) Rhonda Morning Star- Pope (Buena Vista) Silvia Burley, (California Valley Miwok Tribe) Mike Connolly (Campo) Nikki Munholand (Cedarville) David L. Toler, (Chemehuevi) Donner Ellsworth, (Chemehuevi) Vicki Macias, (Cloverdale) BlossomHunter, (Cold Springs) Tracy Laub, (Dry Creek) CALIFORNIA (cont’d) Thomas Leon Brown, (Elem) Craig Marcus, (Enterprise) Will Micklin, (Ewiiaapaay) Lindsey Stine, (Fort Independence) Coty Yarborough, (Hoopa) Javaugh Miller, (LaPosta) Cheri Smith Gibson, (Laytonville) LaVonne Peck, (La Jolla) Marc Romero, (Mesa Grande) Nick McMullen, (Montgomery) Bill Fisher, (Morongo) Elaine Bethel Fink, (North Fork Rancheria) AndrewAlejandre, (Paskenta Band) DaNikka Huss, (Pala) Jennifer M. Lutige, (Pinoleville) Nikki Symington, (Rincon) Mary Camp, (Redwood) Kathy Down, (Resighini) MatthewMattison, (Rohnerville) Michael Contrares, (San Pasqual) Curtis Notsinneh, (Rumsey) Hildy Medina, (Santa Ynez) Virginia Hill, (Santa Ysabel) AaronAbrazzanovic, (Susanville) Deborah Olstad, (Susanville) Glenn Quiroga, (Sycuan) Bill Gollnick, (Tejon) Julie Tuazon-Gonzalez, (Tejon) Rhodi Nieto, (Tule River) VictorWoods (Viejas) Terri Colton, (Yurok) Taralyn Ipinã, (Yurok) Larry Hendrix, (Yurok) KimMamaradlo, (Yurok) Tanya Sagrey, (Yurok) COLORADO Tawnie Knight, (Ute Mountain) Thomas H. Shipps, (Southern Ute) CONNECTICUT Harriet Bromley, (Mashantucket Pequot) CherylAllen, (Mashantucket Pequot) FLORIDA Georgette Smith, (Seminole Tribe) Lee Tiger, (Seminole Tribe) IDAHO Randy L. Teton, (Fort Hall) Heather Keen, (Coeur d’ALene) Patty Perry, (Kootenai) Chuck Fernin, (Kootenai) KANSAS Don June, (Sac and Fox) TimRhodd, (Iowa) Suzanne Heck, (Prairie Band Potawatomi) ThomasWabnum, (Prairie Band Potawatomi) LOUISIANA Telah Robinson, (Chitimacha) KimWalden,(Chitimacha) David Sickey, (Coushatta) Babette C. Bordelon, (Tunica-Biloxi)

X RHODE ISLAND Anthony Dean Stanton, Narragansett SOUTHCAROLINA Wenonah Haire, (Catawba) VIRIGINIA Joyce Krigsvold, (Pamunkey) TEXAS Carlos Bullock, (Alabama Coushatta) Patricia Riggs, (Ysleta Del Sur) Alejandro Simental, (Ysleta Del Sur) UTAH Gayle Rollo, (Paiute Tribe) Madeline Greymountain, (Goshute) Robert Colorow, (Uintah-Ouray) Mariah Cuch, (Uintah-Ouray) WASHINGTON Amy Loudermilk, (Chehalis) Whitney Devlin, (Cowlitz) Ann Sargent, (Jamestown S'Kallam) Betty Oppenheimer, (Jamestown S'Kallam) RonAllen, (Jamestown S'Kallam) April Pierre, (Kalispel) Raynell Zuni, (Lummi) Leonard Denney, (Makah) Rollin Fatland, (Muckleshoot) Katie Krueger, (Quileute) ReneeWoodruff, (Quileute) Natalie Charley, (Quinault) Jacquire Poplin, (Quinault) Norma Joseph, (Sauk Suiattle) WindyAnderson, (Suquamish) Jody Rosier, (Skokomish) Leah Thomas, (Shoalwater Bay) JaimeMartin, (Snoqualmie) Leslie Eastwood, (Swinomish) Ed Knight, (Swinomish) WISCONSIN Michael Chapman, (Menominee) Michelle Dickinson, (Menominee) BarbaraWebster, (Oneida) JeffAckley, Jr., (Red Cliff) KimSwisher, (Red Cliff) Brandon Thomas, (Red Cliff) Tribal Reviewers/Contributors List (cont’d) NEVADA(cont’d) Deborah Dunn, (Yerington) Linda L. Howard, (Yerington) NEWYORK Dale T. White, (St. Regis Mohawk) KellyAbdo, (Oneida) Tarah Seneca (Seneca) NEWMEXICO Allie Thompson Moore, (Acoma) Bill Fisher, (Cochiti) Sheila Herrera, (Isleta) Carmela Sutherland, (Isleta) Chip R. Martin, (Isleta) Valentino Jaramillo, (Isleta) Governor E. Paul Torres, (Isleta) Kathy Trujillo, (Isleta) Governor Joshua Madalena, (Jemez) HaroldW. Sando, (Jemez) Lynn Toledo, (Jemez) Bernice Muskrat, (JicarillaApache) Natasha D. Cuylear, (JicarillaApache) J.D. Knighthawk, (JicarillaApache) Stephen Montano, (JicarillaApache) Tammi Lambert, (Laguna) Natalie Pino, (Laguna) Diana Martinez, (Nambe) SherryArchuleta, (Picuris) Levi Lementino, (Picuris) Governor Richard Mermejo, (Picuris) Samuel Villarreal Catanach, (Pojoaque) Christy Mermejo, (Okhay OWingeh) Nathan Tsosie, (Ramah Navajo) Kee Lee (Ramah Navajo) Governor George M. Montoya, (SantaAna) Governor J. Michael Chavarria (Santa Clara) Kenneth Pin (Santo Domingo) Darren Stand, (San Idelfonso) AndrewOthole, (San Idelfonso) MillieWeller, (Taos) GovernorArlen Quetawki, Sr. and staff, (Zuni) NORTHDAKOTA Ken Hall, (Fort Berthold) OKLAHOMA Dan LittleAxe, (Absentee-Shawnee) Eddie Broken Shoulder, (Absentee-Shawnee) MargaretAnoque, (CheyenneArapahoe) Anna Knight, (Cherokee) DonnaA. Wahnee, (Comanche) Jennifer Bell, (Citizen Band of Potawatomi) Kelley Francen, (Citizen Band of Potawatomi) J D Colbert, (Muskgoee Creek) Larry Dushane, (Eastern Shawnee) Jeff Haozous, (Ft SillApache) Phillip Cravatt, (Iowa) Michelle L Holiday, (Iowa) Ewell Longhorn, (Kiowa) Paula Smith, (Delaware) Sammie Still, (Keetoowah Cherokee) DonyaWilliams, (Miami) Emilee Truelove, (Miami) Candy Thomas, (Osage) Heather Payne, (Otoe Missouria) Tiffany Frietze, (Pawnee) Suzanne Heck, (Prairie Band Potawatomi) Donna Mercer, (Quapaw) StephenWard, (Quapaw) Kent Collier, (Kickapoo) Jennell Downs, (Kickapoo) Vanessa Vance, (Kickapoo) Rhonda Hayworth, (Ottawa/Pawnee) Paula Mendoza, (Ponca) Catherine Walker, (Sac and Fox) Sandra Massey, (Sac and Fox) Sam Caruso, (Sac and Fox) Steve Stand, (Sac and Fox) Leonard Harjo, (Seminole) Ericka Pinion, (Seminole) Calvin Cassady, (Seneca/Cayuga) George Scott, (Thlopthlocco) Edward Mouss, (Thlopthlocco) Emanuel Morgan, (Thlopthlocco) Rose Scott, (Thlopthlocco) GaryMcAdams, (Wichita) Charles Tippeconnic, (Wichita) Ron Brown, (Wyandotte) Ron Kaiser, (Wyandotte) WilliamSwaim,(Wyandotte) Troy LIttleAxe, (Modoc) OREGON Kenton Dick, (Burns Paiute) Kay Collins, (Coquille) Jesse Beers, (Coos Bay) Lower Umpqua, Siuslaw) Dean Rhodes, (Grand Ronde) Taylor Tuppe, (Klamath) Diane Rodriquez, (Siletz) Chuck Sams, (Umatilla) Lonny Macy, (Warm Springs)

XI Sponsors Tiller Research, Inc., thanks the following businesses for their support for the 3rd edition of Tiller’s Guide to Indian Country. The Lodge at Chama Chama, NewMexico www.Lodgeatchama.com Hobbs, Straus, Dean &Walker, LLP Washington, D.C. Portland, OR Oklahoma City, OK Sacramento, CA www.hsdwlaw.com Nordhaus Law Firm, LLP Albuquerque, NM Spokane, Washington Washington, DC www.nordhauslaw.com BNSF Railway Headquarters: Fort Worth, TX www.bnsf.com Menominee Tribal Enterprises Neopit, Wisconsin www.mtewood.com Jicarilla Apache Energy Company Dulce, NewMexico www.jaeco.com Jamestown S’Klallam Tribal Enterprises Sequim, Washington www.jkt.org Nova-Dine Corporation Window Rock, AZ Albuquerque, NM Chambersburg, PA Columbia, MD www.nova-dine.com BuckleySandler, LLP Washington, DC New York, NY Chicago, IL Los Angeles, CA London, England www.buckleysandler.com American Indian Chamber of Commerce of NewMexico Albuquerque, NewMexico www.aiccnm.com Americans for Indian Opportunity Albuquerque, NewMexico www.aio.org Homer Law Chartered Washington, D.C. www.homerlaw.com American Indian Council of Architects and Engineers www.aicae.org Native American Rights Fund Denver, CO www.narf.org Powers, Pyles, Sutter & Verville, LLP Washington, DC www.ppsv.com Patricia Parker Reston, VA

XII have scored over 500. This is in addition to Chama’s traditional open ranch hunts. Complementing the legendary elk, the Lodge and Ranch at Chama Land & Cattle Company also featuresAmerican bison, trophy mule deer, black bear, blue grouse, and the stunningly beautiful Merriam’s turkey. And, as if this weren’t enough, in spring and summer Chama treats their guests to some of the most enticing trout fishing in North America. In addition to numerous pristine high-country lakes with brown, cutthroat, brook, and rainbow trout, the Ranch encompasses miles and miles of crystalline streams, such as Poso Creek and the venerable Brazos River, including nearly five miles of the Brazos’ formative East and West Forks—thus offering absolutely sublime stream fishing in the most spectacular settings imaginable. All of this reflects an unmatched commitment to excellence and stewardship by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The management and staff of this celebrated lodge and ranch, with their devotion to an uncompromising vision of distinction, quality service, and preeminence, assures that friends and guests enjoy experiences that will stay with them for a lifetime. The results speak for themselves, borne out by an unheard of 89% return rate. Guests come back, year after year, to the Lodge and Ranch at Chama Land & Cattle Company, a place they have come to regard as home, to people they have come to think of as family. The Jicarilla Apache Nation’s he Lodge and Ranch at Chama Land & Cattle Company The Lodge and Ranch at Chama Land & Cattle Company has long been recognized as one of the world’s premier sporting destinations. Located less than two hours north of Santa Fe near the border of Colorado, in northern New Mexico’s soaring San Juan Mountains, the ranch traces its origins back to its inception in 1950 when it was acquired by the Vaughn family of Dallas, Texas. The Vaughns’ stated goal was to establish the perfect hunting ranch, and to that end they were wildly successful. So began the rich history of what has today become the Lodge and Ranch at Chama Land & Cattle Company. In June of 1995 the Jicarilla Apache Nation of Dulce, New Mexico, purchased this sprawling 32,000-acre ranch. Long known for extra ordinary resource management programs and a firm commitment to stewardship of the lands they inhabit, the Jicarilla Apache people were not only committed to continuing the rich traditions of this world-renowned hunting and fishing destination, but to even further enhancing it. The distinctive story of the Jicarilla Apache reaches far back into a noble history rich with integrity, pride, and tradition, while today eagerly pressing forward into a future of extraordinary vision, potential, and continued growth. In 1998 the Jicarilla Apache Nation added the 4,000-acre Mossman Ranch which adjoins the lodge and ranch on its eastern border. Two years later a 16,000 square-foot expansion was added to the already existing lodge that had graced the ranch since 1972, thus completing a 27,000 square-foot architectural masterpiece with massive timbers, two great rooms, 21 luxurious rooms and suites, and an entrance foyer featuring a 36-foot vaulted ceiling and monumental stone fireplaces. The Lodge has since been the recipient of numerous national and international awards, acclaimed as one of the finest, most luxurious hunting and fishing lodges and business retreats on the planet. Here, you will find some of the grandest elk on the face of the earth, along with luxurious accommodations, opulent amenities, comprehensive business facilities, and exquisite landscapes that are simply unrivaled. For decades, the Lodge and Ranch at Chama Land & Cattle Company has been famous for its spectacular elk hunting, for the elk herds that migrate annually across southern Colorado into northern New Mexico, and especially for the privately managed elk herd ranging over 7,000 acres of mountains and canyons on the ranch proper. Chama’s elk management program has long been focused on enabling and encouraging the elk that inhabit this ranch to realize and express their full genetic potential. With methods conceived and designed to introduce a whole new regimen of diverse genetics into the private herds, the goal was to accelerate even further the development of some of the most awe-inspiring bull elk to walk the earth. The results have been astounding. Chama’s hunters have taken nearly three dozen bull elk that have scored over 400 SCI points, two of which

XIII Hobbs, Straus, Dean & Walker, LLP A National Law Firm Exclusively Devoted to Promoting and Defending Tribal Rights HOBBS STRAUS DEAN & WALKER A National Law Firm with offices in: 2120 L Street, NW Suite 700 Washington, DC 20037 202-822-8282 202-296-8834 Fax Portland 806 S.W. Broadway Suite 900 Portland, OR 97205 503-242-1746 503-242-1072 Fax Oklahoma City 101 ParkAvenue Suite 700 Oklahoma, OK 73102 405-602-9425 405-602-9426 Fax Sacramento 1903 21st Street 3rd Floor Sacramento, CA95811 916-442-9444 916-442-8344 Fax www.hobbsstraus.com history that Indian Country will be proud to claim as its legacy. Hobbs, Straus, Dean & Walker is one of the oldest law firms in America focused on providing legal services to American Indians and Alaska Natives, and remains at the forefront of legal and policy issues that affect Indian Country. The current firm descends directly from the firm of Wilkinson, Cragun & Barker (WCB). That firm was founded in 1951 by three early pioneers of utilizing the law to protect the rights, privileges, and immunities of American Indians and the political sovereignty of Indian tribes. The current firm was founded when WCB broke up in 1982, and Charlie Hobbs and Jerry Straus took their Indian practice and started the new firm, joined by Bobo Dean and later by Hans Walker, who also had Indian practices. In 1967, Charlie Hobbs took on the claims of individual Indian allottees on the Quinault Reservation on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. Charlie litigated this case for twentytwo years (without compensation unless and until the case was won) including two trips to the United States Supreme Court, before that Court finally ruled in 1983 that the individual Indians' claims could proceed against the federal government for failing to discharge the fiduciary duties owed to the Indian trust owners by the government when it manages Indian trust timber. The government eventually agreed to a settlement of $26 million in favor of the over 2,500 Indian plaintiffs, and it took another three years to determine how much each allottee was entitled to. Some idea of the significance of the firm's Supreme Court victory in Mitchell v. United States is suggested by the fact that this case has so far been cited more than 2,770 times in other published court decisions. Another landmark achievement of our attorneys includes the U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1968, that the Menominee Tribe's treaty rights to hunt and fish free of state regulation had survived the federal government's 1950's-era attempt to "terminate" the political relationship between the United States and a number of Indian tribes. In the wake of this decision, the Menominee Tribe and almost every other terminated tribe in the country, succeeded in reversing the legal effects of the disastrous "Termination Era." The social, human, and economic costs of that illfated policy, unfortunately, can still be seen in many of those communities. Jerry Straus played a major role in the yearslong effort on behalf of the Taos Pueblo of New Mexico to restore to the Pueblo a parcel of U.S. Forest Service Land in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as Blue Lake, which had been an area of great religious significance to the Pueblo since pre-Columbian days. Jerry, who joined the WCB firm in 1963 after leaving the U.S. Department of Justice, led this effort against federal agency resistance, before the U.S. Congress and all the way into the Oval Office in 1970 where President Nixon signed a law restoring Blue Lake to the Taos Pueblo. This paved the way for other federal actions to restore lands of religious significance to indigenous people from the Yakima Valley of Washington State to Bear Butte in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The return of Blue Lake is widely regarded as a monumental watershed event in late 20th Century federal Indian policy that culminated in the Indian Self-Determination Act ushered in by President Nixon's Special Message on IndianAffairs of July 8, 1970. Bobo Dean, a former Rhodes Scholar, is one of the most prominent experts in the country on the Indian Self Determination Act. He assisted the Miccosukee Tribe of Florida in negotiating the first ISDA contract with the BIA under which an entire BIA agency is administered by a tribal government. Partner Hans Walker was formerly in charge of Indian Affairs in the Solicitor's Office of the Interior Department, and is an enrolled member of the Three Affiliated Tribes of North Dakota (Mandan). Today our firm provides a full spectrum of legal services to Indian tribes and Alaska Natives in virtually every state where there are Indian reservations. With now 33 lawyers and offices in Oklahoma City; Portland; Sacramento; and Washington, DC, the firm currently has the privilege to represent dozens of federally recognized tribes, as well as many tribal organizations. The firm's hands-on legal representation encompasses almost every active area of Indian law, including federal agency and congressional relations; self-determination and self-governance negotiations and tribal operations; natural resource issues including water rights; development, operation, and regulatory compliance of gaming operations; economic development; health care; Indian housing; taxation; and the unique challenges facing tribal communities in Oklahoma and Alaska. Hobbs, Straus, Dean & Walker is proud of its record in promoting and defending tribal rights. We like to think we are a law firm that has made a difference, and with our Indian tribal clients we continue to write new chapters in our nation's